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The cause of ship fire fighting strategy types and

    Chongming Island is located in Yangtze River estuary, due to geographical location, making the Chongming thriving marine transportation, but with a variety of large vessels into the field of marine transport,booster cables ship safety, the probability of occurrence of fire accidents is increasing. Here we focus on the ship and extinguishing fires.

    First, an overview of the ship cause of the fire.

    Ship in the use of nature divided: passenger ships, oil tankers, battery clip cargo ships, container ships, but no matter what kind of ship, there are many similarities, there are also many kinds of ships similar fire hazard, there are similar fire-prone key positions, such as: engine room,tow rope staff lounge, kitchen and so on. The ship is apt to cause the fire because the fire investigation point of view, can be divided into: open flame fires, electric fires, accidental fires and arson.

    (A) open flame fire.

    Fire fire-prone construction site in the ship repair, kitchen and staff lounge.ratchet tie dowm The first scene in the ship repair, oxygen cutting, welding and other fire operations, the operational errors, and detailed security checks and other reasons are not easily lead to "every space" and "remote" fire. Second, the use of the kitchen fire, due to staff negligence, operator error are likely to ignite the oil inside the kitchen and kitchen interior decoration materials. Such as: June 10, 2008, Xi Chen Town, Chongming County, home to Hong Kong that a ship terminal as a result of careless use of fire staff fire. Third, the staff lounge, cigarette butts has become the largest fire hazard, due to inappropriate management of the large number of smokers, making cigarettes the highest risk of fire.

    (B) of the electrical fire.

    Various ships in the cabin has a host (diesel engine) and auxiliary machinery (generator), and other electrical equipment, various electrical devices by a wire connected to pipeline, due to overload, short circuit, poor contact, arc sparks, leakage, such as lightning or static electricity causes fire easy to produce fire. From the perspective of electrical fire, electrical fires are the result of: first, the dark electrical line laying the wire used. When the wire insulation damage, aging, short circuit, leakage phenomena caused by insulation layer burning, but also makes metal melting, causing nearby combustibles, fuel combustion, resulting in a fire. Such as: July 6, 2008, Xi Chen Town, Chongming County, home to Hong Kong that a ship terminal electrical short circuit caused the fire. Second, electrical equipment failure. Failure occurs when the electrical equipment is found not in a timely manner due, resulting in the formation of electrical short circuits and other internal problems, leading to the internal circuit load increases, temperature rises, causing burning equipment, causing a fire. Such as: January 6, 2007, Xinhe Town, Chongming County, Shanghai Shipyard, a ship number 5, January 12, 2008, Changxing Township Feng Rd Shanghai Zhenhua Port Machinery II are the electrical terminals of a ship caused by equipment failure fire.

    (Iii) accidental fires and arson.

    Mainly due to an accidental fire caused by fire, natural environment, such as: lightning. There are many flammable ship items the day in the mine in summer, due to lightning and ignited, causing a fire. For arson, which is a human crime, without notes describe here.

    Second, the risk of fire ships.

    The different nature of the use of the ship, have the same risk of fire, there are different here from different directions, different types of ships on fire, analysis shows that, if immature views, we hope to learn from, together.

    (A) of the engine room fire suppression.

    1, a large cargo ship engine room fire characteristics.

    (1) the development of rapid fire, high temperature, smoke big.

    Cabin of the ship's power system, cabin and there are many complex risks. The cabin interior has a lot of fuel storage, if the cabin caught fire, the fire quickly spread throughout the cabin, the temperature has risen sharply because of the dramatic development of the fire, incomplete combustion of fuel oil will produce a lot of gas, smoke. Volatile because of high temperature makes a lot of fuel, oil will be filled with the steam cabin, part of the oil will spread out from the door, an even greater danger.

    (2) The fire spread quickly.

    Engine room with steel construction, the steel under high temperature at 500 ~ 800OC for 15 minutes or so will lose their strength and toughness, so the fire can not be confined to the cabin interior, but the ship and along the upper part of the whole ship to the spread of silo wall .

    (3) a high risk of an explosion likely to cause casualties.

    Since the internal cabin fuel oil and more the event of fire, the cabin is not completely burned, a large number of volatile fuel with increasing temperature, when the volatile oil steam reaches a certain value, it will generate the steam explosion, this is easy allows the crew and the fire of the combatants casualties.

    (4) ship within the narrow passageways, staff should not be evacuated.

    All channels within the ship are relatively narrow, in case of fire, because people panic, poor access roads will cause serious, Qunsiqunshang problem will be more prominent.

    (5) smoke big, potency and poor visibility, is not conducive to reconnaissance, attack.

    When the upward trend in the cabin fire, the cabin interior temperature is high, smoke large, highly toxic and hard for scouts and fighters, reconnaissance and fire and rescue to bring many difficulties.

    2, the ship fire fighting strategies.

    (1) concentration of forces, well prepared to fight a protracted war.

    Complex structure of the ship, and within the narrow passageways, the whole ship is relative from the sealed vessel may be in sports or other semi-state of motion, combined with these factors, making our time in the process of fire fighting to be alert. Mobilization of forces from combat, to the battle, the implementation of the whole attack, and fire fighting course of the fighting, the ship must take into account the risk of fire, complexity, whether offensive or defensive is foolproof, it is not anxious to do fight a protracted war preparations.

    (2) ensure that the force to control the fire, determine the start of the attack channel.

    For fire fighting ship, not as simple as building fires on land, the power of their own fire fighting forces alone can not effectively complete the task, and therefore the power to mobilize the relevant departments to ensure the fighting tasks. In the process of rapid fire, determine the attack channel is very important to choose the right words will help control the fire, control the casualties.

    3, the implementation of fire fighting.

    (1), while cooling explosion, reconnaissance and rescue organizations.

    As the oil vapor concentration inside the cabin increased, to reach its explosive limit at any time, so one must cool the hull, so that fuel oil can not continue to evaporate. Second, diluted to use special water jets of steam, the oil surface covered with foam to prevent explosion. At the time of the accident to ensure that no organization reconnaissance reconnaissance teams into the field to understand the latest fire, find and implement the rescue trapped people.

    (2) upper intercept, the lower part of a breakthrough, the internal strength melee.

    Cabin fire, the fire spread upward quickly, so should be the first block, to prevent the fire from spreading. Since entering the cabin from the top is difficult, and therefore the proper place in the lower cabin operated rescue openings for fire fighters to enter the internal strength close combat ready. For Ship Fire, the implementation of internal strength melee, fighting in the fire and rescue is a necessary means. Internal strength melee combat fire accurately, eliminate the source of fire, reduce fire-fighting time. If you do not play melee, fire fighters inaccessible, can not fully play the role of various fire extinguishing agents.

    Ship fire fighting tactics for the use of fire must be based on actual situation of the site through repeated reconnaissance, commanders have to make the right judgments, to truly grasp the cool explosion suppression, matched by a variety of tactics to effectively combine be flexible in applying scientific decision-making.

    4, during the fire fighting ship things to note.

    (1) a good understanding of the engine room fire suppression difficulty. Difficulty of fire fighting not only the unique structure of the ship, the fire rapid changes, but also in ship fire in the location, environment, weather and many other objective conditions. It is necessary to make preparations for a protracted war, but also full of fire to be understanding.

    (2) before an operation in the implementation of fire fighting and rescue operations must be strictly careful planning. Through reconnaissance, the right choice not only a good offensive line, but also make the protection of combatants into the fire work. Through surveillance, the correct analysis to determine the direction of fire spread, changing conditions, a reasonable and timely adjustment of the deployment of forces to ensure the smooth progress of rescue and fire fighting and rescue.

    (3) For the ripper attack, it must be when the ripper guided engineering and technical personnel, description of relevant information, do not rashly ripper, resulting in flowing oil fires, the spread of fire. Ripper opened up the channel to help smoke out, easy to 疏散 have beneficial actions of combatants, to provide favorable conditions for fire fighting work.

    (4) When the cabin after the fire was put out, be sure to note the spread of oil vapor, so that timely and diluted again to prevent oil vapor and air mixture explosion, resulting in unnecessary casualties.

    (B) of the car and passenger ship fire fighting mixed.

    Ship transportation in Chongming, the car and passenger transport accounts for a sizeable proportion. As the main car and passenger transport ship tools - car and passenger ship mix, we should focus on the fire department. Mixed for car and passenger ship, is not only great capacity and can carry a large number of vehicles, there is a big risk, so car and passenger ship mixed fire fighting and fire prevention and fire protection became an important aspect of Chongming. Engine room fire has already been introduced, for the car and passenger ship also has a similar mixed situation, not repeat the description here description, the following mixing board itself to the passenger car and other passenger ships with the existence of fire hazard to be introduced.

    In addition to the cabin on board passenger vehicles other than mixing, such as car deck, kitchen, cabin, etc. are also dangerous parts, these parts of a fire, but also threatens the fate of the entire ship, whether goods or the safety of personnel, will place in great danger.

    1, the car features a fire on board passenger mix.

    Car fire on board passenger mix, the combustion are generally not very intense, relatively small explosion, but the board, more staff, more vehicles, a wide range of combustible materials, fire fighting facilities are relatively small, in the event of fire, fighting more difficult, often resulted in numerous casualties and severe economic losses. When such a ship fire fighting, if not familiar with the situation, challenges are great, but very vulnerable to heavy casualties.

    (1) the spread of multi-channels, the fire, rapid development, easy to form three-dimensional fires.

    There are a lot of fuel in the cabin. Such as: cabin wall decoration materials, the passenger seat of rest, passenger baggage, on board the transport of goods, in order to fuel the majority; transport vehicle if a failure occurs, causing an explosion, the formation of a fire, likely to cause a chain reaction difficult to control; other such ships space is relatively spacious, air convection is easy, easy spread of the fire.

    (2) evacuation difficulties, could easily lead to heavy casualties.

    Mixed loading large capacity passenger cars, are generally more than 300 import and export, however small cabin, and the channel narrow, steep staircase, sliding instability, it is easy to block the fire, causing confusion; interior decoration materials in the ship the combustion process is easy to produce large amounts of toxic gases, suffocation after inhaling the body and so on; also ship is floating in the water, a large number of persons in distress at a time is difficult to evacuate to the ground, fire fighters could not board the rescue in time.

    2, the fire fighting strategies.

    (1) fire detection, evacuation and rescue trapped personnel.

    After the fire reached by outside observers, we must first determine the location of the ship berthing, pier or in the middle of the river; initially set the fire site, burning range, direction and personnel trapped in the fire situation; fire to the ship staff to understand the initial situation. Boarding house deep reconnaissance, to further identify the number of trapped, status, incendiary nature of the fire site, the main direction of fire spread, attacking the road, rescue channel and whether the risk of explosion.

    Rescue trapped on board, the most important thing is to trapped in the safe transfer from the fire scene to rescue the ship or shore. Therefore, commanders should be based on the water environment at that time, the ship's dangerous situation, and rescue boat handling performance matched to the specific circumstances of such approaches. The ship stopped at the pier, the fire brigade arrived at the scene as soon as possible with the ramp, ladder, fire ladders and other board, to conduct reconnaissance and evacuation of trapped persons; stop at the river's ship, to be loaded rapidly mobilize fire and contain travel Fire Fighting and so close to the fire scene, according to the situation, such as evacuation fire ladder or rope ladder.

    (2) fire suppression.

    Mix of car and passenger ship fire fighting, should implement the "Anti-emphasis on the off," the guiding ideology, the focus is to do a good job fighting to prevent the explosion, to prevent the spread and prevent shipwreck, to prevent casualties. In complying with the "save the people first, then fire," "the first control, after the elimination", "first priority, after the general" principles of the tactics to adopt "combined with sparse off", "the easier part first, after the first outside of" , "key breakthrough, step by step," the tactical approach.

    "Save the people first, after the fire," fire on board the car and passenger mix in terms of two aspects should be to understand, first, when the fighting ships in the event of diving, the water and confirmed that officers did not fire the ship threatened by the fire staff, fire water rescue personnel should be; when the ship has the water and life-threatening fire personnel, there is fire on board the rescue vessel should be trapped, and water can let other people fighting vessels in the rescue. Second, when the fire trapped on board, caught fire around the surface of the water without diving boat, the water staff, implementation of fire fighting fire should start, which is limited because of the characteristics of the ship, this time the rescue ship must rely on a fixed channels need to open up using water rescue channel, also need to use water cannons to cover the rescue personnel. If you do not have gun fire opened up a secure channel, even if firefighters can enter the fire area in contact with trapped, can not be trapped so that no protective measures to leave the safety of the fire area. In this case, fire fighting and rescue should be the same time, this time fighting but also for the purpose of carrying out life-saving first.

    "First control, after the elimination of" early to reach the scene of the fire brigade is to deal with the vessel on fire outside the controlled area fire, to prevent the expansion of the arrival of reinforcements to be follow-up, overall organization of attack. In the absence of sufficient fire power to the main deck to the ship building and implementation of control with the Ministry of the line to prevent the spread, resulting in greater losses.

    "First priority, after the general" refers to the ship in fighting fire, fire brigade reached the scene after the fire to seize the key points and main aspects. When the passenger ro-ro ship on fire, the fire is to prevent the focus cabin and adjacent tank fire near the spread.

    "Dredging off with" refers to the process of fighting the fire, requiring firefighters to rescue side edge fire, while fire evacuation side of the goods. Fire so as to effectively shorten time and reduce casualties.

    "Easy things first, after the first addition of" refers to the process in fighting ship fires, firefighters should be easy to put out the flames first and the surface of the vessel put out the flame burning, so that can eliminate the further spread of the fire expansion troubles, but also concentrate on fighting the fire for further pave the way to provide footing.

    "Key breakthrough, step by step" refers to the fire should be based on mixing different types of car and passenger ship, the focus and starting point to determine the fire, size up the situation, seize the favorable opportunity, step by step, eliminate fragmentation.

    Third, the process of fire fighting and rescue attention:

    1, all combatants should be proper personal protection, in the premise of ensuring its own security in order to battle. Cabin smoke concentration, high temperature, complex structure, movement difficulties, to enter the cabin personnel must wear breathing apparatus, wear insulated clothing.

    2, into the reconnaissance or when the attack must be well-organized, staff to refine, and out of time and connect to the provisions of the signal, in strict accordance with the road safety requirements, personnel entering the high temperature compartment, the cover should organize the work (such as using water shield) to to ensure operational security.

    3, the timely and effective implementation of the ventilation, exhaust and lighting measures to improve the offensive effectiveness.

    4, in fire fighting, to control the number of people boarding.

    5, the laying of water with time, with a fixed firmly to the water to avoid leaving water with a falling drop of water gunmen were wounded.

    6, the ship tilted righting, and remove water to prevent excessive water caused by the ship shot down, the accident rate.

    7, according to the burning ship parts to adjust the direction of the wind to help the fire to avoid.

    With the social progress, further economic development, marine transport industry will usher in a new development, along with the continuing broad field of marine transport, is also the danger of the ship in the continuous improvement, which gave us the fire were put forward new requirements, how to put out ship fire is also a focus of our future work, These are just some of my shallow understanding of the hope that the comrades in the discussion with a better fire fighting Chuanbo views and methods, I believe that through the collective efforts of comrades, When confronted with such a fire, our team will deal with it smoothly, with excellent business skills, business knowledge, skilled, fighting major fires, protect the country and the people and property.

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