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Moore's Law, who led after the era of the chip industry

    Moore's Law of integrated circuits under the guidance of the production is approaching the limits of the laws of physics,booster cables the chip industry, an urgent need for alternative technologies.
    State is still in the development of a variety of new chip manufacturing technology - molecular computing, biological computing, quantum computing, graphene and other technology, who will win out?

    In 1975, the chip industry pioneer Gordon Moore (GordonMoore) issued the famous Moore's Law: the complexity of the integrated circuit chip will double every two years. After several decades, under the guidance of this law,battery clip advances in chip manufacturing technology to the chip to be shrinking size of transistors, so that the electric signal transmission distance is shorter, faster processing speed.

    On the electronics industry and consumers, Moore's Law means that the size of the computer type of equipment will become smaller, faster and lower cost. Of course, all this thanks to persistent semiconductor design and manufacturing innovation for 35 years to chip in, as always, follow this trajectory.tow rope However, engineers are also aware that at some point, Moore's Law will eventually fall into despair, because transistors will become so only a few dozen atoms thick. Such a small size is approaching the limits of the basic laws of physics, but actually approaching this limit has appeared before two very practical problem: want such a small transistor placed so close together, but also to obtain high yields (quality standards of the chip,ratchet tie dowm rather than the flawed chip), the cost becomes too high; the other hand, a lot of transistors to switch the operation will be a sharp rise in the heat, enough to burn device itself.

    Indeed, these issues have begun to appear a few years ago. Now an ordinary personal computer commonly used "dual core" chips - means using two small processors, rather than a processor, the design of a very major reason is, if the required number of transistors into a chip package on and solve the heat problem has become difficult. Chip designers to change the choice of side by side two or more chips, and they are programmed for parallel processing of information.

    Moore's Law might eventually come to an end. If this is the case, engineers how to create a more powerful chip it? Development of new structure or use can be assembled atom by atom nano-materials researchers are studying the two approaches. Other approaches include quantum computing and biological computing. The following will introduce some technical, some of which is still in the prototype stage. In the next 20 years, these technologies are expected to let the computer continue to follow the "smaller, faster, lower cost," this path forward.

    Cooling: developing new radiator.

    As the number of transistors on a chip up to 10 billion, when the switching transistor to eliminate the heat generated is a major challenge. Although there is room PC fan, but even so, each of about 100 watts of power the chip already is its thermal limits. To this end researchers have begun to design some new alternative technologies. MacBookAir notebook computers used by the thermal conductivity of aluminum into a beautiful shell, and serve as a heat sink. Apple PowerMacG5 personal computers, liquid (water) from the processor chip, the following micro-channel flow with heat.

    However, liquids and electronic devices is an unreliable combination, such as smart phones, portable devices such relatively small there is no place to accommodate the pipe or fan. Intel's research group has a layer of bismuth telluride thin film superlattices do chip package body. Thermoelectric materials, the temperature gradient into electrical signals, in fact, played on the chip itself, cooling effect.

    Purdue University startups Ventiva research work is based on the development of a small solid state with no moving parts, "fan", which uses the corona wind effect (CoronaWindEffect) to generate an breeze - home air purifier quiet it used kinds of technology.

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