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Instrument is the product of a variety of integrated science and technology

   Instrument is the product of a variety of integrated science and technology, variety, widely used, and constantly updated, there are several classification methods.
    By the use of the purpose and use of points, the main measuring instrument, automobile instrument, tractor meters, marine instrument,booster cables aviation instrumentation, navigation equipment, driving equipment, radio test equipment, microwave test equipment carrier, geological exploration test equipment, construction materials testing equipment, seismic testing equipment, land surveying instruments, Hydrological instruments, timing devices, agricultural testing equipment, commercial test equipment, teaching equipment, medical equipment, environmental equipment and so on.

    People in the study when the history of science, the seventeenth century as a watershed in the birth of modern science.battery clip Because before this, science does not establish their own traditions, which attached to the philosophical tradition and craftsmen tradition. Francis. Bacon proposed an important philosophical concept - the foundation of natural science experiments. Galileo to the philosophical concept into practice the scientific method can be, tow rope and the scientific experiments proposed two basic elements: the use of scientific instruments to measure and the use of digital recording (expression) measurement results, the experimental results as can be quantitative comparison, and accurate calculation of the data. Since then, the natural sciences over thousands of years of wandering,ratchet tie dowm from the humble observation, fuzzy inference to serious experimentation and rigorous logic, and mathematics form a strong alliance, established their own traditions of natural science.

    When the field of human activity over the time limit of sensory organs, instruments have become a prerequisite of success for all. Progress in many disciplines progress depends primarily on the instrument. In the seventeenth and eighteenth century science since the invention of the thermometer and practical temperature scale, only to have a more accurate temperature of the scientific concept of meaning, as can be measured and the quantitative calculation of the basic physical quantities. It directly led to the birth of thermodynamics, led to the discovery of energy conservation law and a series of basic laws of heat engine, the Industrial Revolution in Europe and laid a solid scientific foundation. In the nineteenth century, the invention of instruments to measure currents, only the study of electricity and magnetism on track quickly, get one after another significant discovery, and promote the electrical era. In the twentieth century, the Wilson cloud chamber and nuclear physics detection equipment of many inventions, it is only opened a nuclear reaction in mystery, and gradually show the true picture of the microscopic world, nuclear physics and laid the basis for the future use of atomic energy. Modern natural science is measured from the real beginning. At that time, many outstanding scientists are inventors of scientific instruments, new methods of measurement founder. They are often left to future generations of scientific heritage consists of two parts, part scientific exploration of the new discovery, the other is created in this process of exploration of new measurement techniques and instrumentation.

    Established on the basis of modern science in modern industry, in essence, is an expansion of activities in scientific experiments, it has all the elements of modern science and basic features. Instrumentation and measurement techniques in such activities is of decisive significance, they are the basis for production. The scale of modern industrial production far more than the scientists in the laboratory of exploration activities, changes need to focus on a variety of sports is much more complex than the laboratory, it is a multi-parameter system, people can only learn through the instrument to and control them.

    Passage of time, the passage of time. The science of human exploration and production activities, instruments evolved a specialized subject, a specialized industry. It supports the social and technological progress, for many activities in the field of scientific experiments and observations to explore means for the orderly production of human activities and normal social life to provide the necessary technical support. This change is an important symbol of civilization and progress, is an important feature of scientific and human labor.

    Instruments of science and technology inherited the rich legacy of human civilization. New discoveries of natural science, engineering technology, new inventions, to enrich its content, making it a high degree of knowledge-intensive, highly integrated disciplines. Instruments to expand human horizons to open up a new domain leading tools, always facing serious challenges, which itself is always evolving in a never ending creation. In modern times, this characteristic was particularly evident. With the rapidly expanding field of human activity, the traditional instruments of measurement object can not cope with a sharp increase. With activities in the natural sciences to explore in depth, requires instrumentation with higher sensitivity and resolution. With industrial production to a higher accuracy, faster paced and more complex process development, the original sensor technology has become increasingly unable to meet requirements. Urgent need to explore new principles and methods of measurement, sensor technology needs to break through the threshold of traditional boundaries, in the sense of magnitude higher response rate and signal to noise ratio, need to go beyond the classical approach to new ways to get signal. In many areas, instrumentation works great changes have taken place, instrumentation has become the industrial production equipment, safety devices, social and technical support system, large rapid transit vehicles, medical systems and defense engineering, the core component, has been with the integration of various kinds of work objects, instruments and their measurement has been the object can not be separated in space, applications must be subject to harsh field conditions, the impact of a strong vibration, electromagnetic interference and a substantial hot and cold upheaval. In order to adapt to this change, the traditional instrument design and technology is undergoing major reform. In addition, instruments in the concerned production, military technology, social service and scientific research at the same time, has begun quietly into the family, improve the quality of life to become an important tool. It gives people the impact will be less than the emergence of personal computers, this instrument will bring major changes in concepts and technology. In the instrumentation of science and technology and industrial development process has never been faced with such urgency, has never appeared above the exciting opportunities.

    Highly developed instrumentation science and technology, an important feature of the information age. Instrument is a source of information in the subject classification are "information access" technology category, which technology and information transfer and information processing technology of information science and technology constitute the contemporary three major components. However, there are three major components of information science development is very uneven. Communication systems and people concerned about computer technology far more than the concern of instrumentation. Early in the information age, information science is mainly involved in social activities of human beings of information, mostly text, language, voice and image information, so long as to turn them into corresponding optical signals or electrical signals to be transmitted and treatment. The main problem is that people are concerned about communications and computers, because the human voice image information into electrical signals or optical signals have long been very mature technology. When the information science related to a deeper level, more attention to nature and its relationship with the people, pay more attention to natural science research, production activities, technical means of war, human health, safety and the environment, when, how to get nature itself message that the most important prerequisite to solve the problem, "Information access" has become an important basis for follow-up. The face of nature, instruments of human major scientific means to obtain information, it is largely to promote or restrict human activities in many fields. This situation is not balanced, the information society in general features of the early stages of development. Its impact is increasing in many areas clearly demonstrated, many countries have begun to re-examine the instrument's value in the information age and status.

    Thinking about science and technology of instrumentation and industrial development, I think it should concern the following questions. First, a strategic planning instrument on the industry, see it as the basis of the information society industries, establishment of a comprehensive science and technology of advanced instrumentation system to support the technological progress of society. Instruments of science and technology to strengthen basic research, in particular, sensor technology and basic technology of the basic theory. Accelerate the industrialization of the sensor research process, to establish our country in international competition of technological superiority. Improve the natural scientists and engineers instruments scientific literacy, science and engineering university in the public courses to open access to technology information. Instruments to encourage the invention of science and technology and innovation, to encourage new ideas put forward to encourage the integration of multidisciplinary and, in particular, to encourage support as CT and GPS (computer tomography and global positioning system) of these traditional, flashing brilliant new technology of modern science, the instrument will always walk in the forefront of the times. The establishment of specialized scientific and technical information instrumentation research, tracking the activities of foreign frontier, to understand global changes and instrumentation industry, trends in the world for Chinese instruments provide clear background information, so that our instruments of science and technology in the field of exploration activities have a multiplier effect.

    Instruments of science and technology on society, aspects of science and technology depends on its own level of development, on the other hand depends on the public understanding of science and technology of instrumentation depth. Instruments have such a feature. It often quietly and even determine the impact of human activities results in many fields, and in the course of such activities, it is difficult to see in its presence. It is not like a rocket into the sky, unlike the maneuvering of the train, or as the hot metal flowing in the blast furnace, Wang Hui, as magnificent, scary, the moment you can feel their tremendous power. Instruments are hidden in the depths of human activity behind the scenes unsung heroes of the big stage, easily ignored and forgotten.

    Emphasis on instrumentation, is the modern rational spirit. Understanding of instrumentation, is to understand the information age.

    The detection instrument is used, measurement, observation, calculation of various physical quantities, composition, physical parameters such as appliances or equipment. Vacuum leak detector, pressure gauge, length measuring instrument, the microscope, the multiplier is Dengjun instrumentation. Broadly speaking, instruments can also have automatic control, alarm, signal transmission and data processing functions such as automatic control of industrial processes for the pneumatic control instruments, and electric control instrumentation, and control systems are Distributed instrumentation are the property of instrumentation.

    Instruments to improve, expand or complement the human faculties. People with a sensory organ to vision, hearing, taste, touch external things, and microscopes, telescopes, sound level meter, pH meter, temperature meter and other instruments, to improve and expand the people of these faculties; In addition, some instruments such as magnetometers meter, radiation meter, counting and measuring to the people can feel the sense organs can not feel the physical quantity; also some instruments can exceed the capacity of people to record, calculate and count, such as high-speed cameras and computers.
    Instrument development has a long history. According to "a degree of Han Fei Zi," recorded in the Warring States period in China has been made using natural magnet guide apparatus, called Sinan. Ancient instruments in a very long historical period are mostly used for orientation, timing, or simply used for weighing and measuring instruments.

    17th and 18th century Europe, some physicists began to use the principles of current and magnetic force is made simple galvanometer; lens made of optical telescopes, laid the basis for electrical and optical equipment. Other measurements and observations for a variety of instruments have gradually been developed.

    19th century to the 20th century, the industrial revolution and modernization of large-scale production of new disciplines and promoting the development of new technologies, and later appeared in computer and space technology, instrumentation, and thus has also been rapid development. Has become modern instrumentation for measurement, control and automation technology tools necessary.

    Instrument is the product of a variety of integrated science and technology, variety, widely used, and constantly updated, there are several classification methods. By the use of the purpose and use of points, the main measuring instrument, automobile instrument, tractor meters, marine instrument, aviation instrumentation, navigation equipment, driving equipment, radio test equipment, microwave test equipment carrier, geological exploration test equipment, construction materials testing equipment, seismic testing equipment, land surveying instruments, Hydrological instruments, timing devices, agricultural testing equipment, commercial test equipment, teaching equipment, medical equipment, environmental equipment and so on.

    Of mechanical instruments of industrial products are industrial automation instruments, electrical instruments, optical instruments, analytical instruments, laboratory instruments and equipment, material testing machine, marine meteorological instruments, film machinery, photographic mechanical, photocopying microfilm machines, instrumentation components , instrumentation, materials, instruments and other technical equipment thirteen categories. They are highly general, larger quantities, or necessary for the instrumentation industry basis.

    According to different characteristics of various types of instruments, such as function, object detection and control, structure, principle and so can be further divided into several subcategories or sub-categories. Such as industrial automation instruments instrumentation can be divided by function, display instruments, adjust the instruments and actuators; which instrumentation is divided by the measured physical temperature measuring instruments, pressure measurement instruments, flow measuring instruments, level measuring instruments and machinery measuring instruments, such as: temperature measurement by measuring instruments are divided into contact and non-contact Thermometer Thermometer; contact list can be divided into thermoelectric thermometer, expansion, resistance and so on. Other types of instruments substantially similar classification, mainly with the development process, use practice and relating to the classification of the product. Instrumentation in the classification there is no uniform standard, the naming of instruments similar situation also exists.

    Instruments to measure the performance of the main technical indicators are precision, sensitivity, response time. Precision measurement instrument that is measured with the same degree of true value. The accuracy of instruments used to represent the level of accuracy, such as 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 etc., 0.1 meters, said the error does not exceed the total ± 0.1% range. Small number of precision levels, indicating that the instrument systematic errors and random errors are small, that is such a precision instrument.

    When the measured amount of sensitivity that has a very small increments with the instrument that caused the incremental value of the incremental ratio, which reflects the instrument can measure the smallest measured: response time is the amount of instrument when a step input, The output from the initial value for the first time to reach the final stable value of the time interval, the general provisions in order to get stable value of 95% of the time when the subject: In addition, repeatability, linearity, hysteresis, dead zone, drift, etc. performance specifications.

    Science and technology, higher instrument constantly updated requirements. In modern scientific test, precision test system, production process control system for automatic detection, and various management automation systems, instrumentation is an important technical tool.

    To further improve the performance of various instruments, enhanced tolerance to use a variety of harsh environment capability, improve reliability and service life, instrumentation will continue to take advantage of new works and the use of new materials and new components. Such as the use of ultrasonic microwave, ray, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, superconductivity, laser theory, and the use of a variety of new semiconductor-sensitive components, integrated circuits, integrated optics, fiber optics and other components. The aim is to achieve the miniaturization of instrumentation, to reduce weight, reduce production costs and ease of use and maintenance.

    Another important trend is that through the use of microcomputers to improve the performance of instruments to improve the instrument itself, automation, intelligent and data-processing capabilities. Instruments not only for individual use, but also through standard interfaces and data access, combined with the computer to form an integrated system control and management of various tests to meet the higher requirements.

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