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Centrifugal separation of flammable and explosive materials, safety measures

 
    Abstract: A centrifuge with flammable materials in centrifugal separation when the solution potential fire and explosion risk, the article on the combustion analysis of the causes of the explosion,booster cables put forward the basic principles of proof, for the centrifuge containing flammable material solution of the possible security risk, the corresponding security countermeasures.

    Keywords: explosive; security; centrifugal separation; countermeasures; hidden.

    Foreword.

    Centrifuges in the pharmaceutical, chemical and industrial applications, very large, battery clip it is still the current chemical intermediates, APIs and other production processes in the solid-liquid separation of the main equipment. In the centrifuge during operation, flammable solvent with the formation of the internal environment of the potential combustion explosion insecurity. This potentially unsafe if the right conditions encountered, it will lead to accidents. Such as the Zhejiang Xinhua Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. "11.07" explosion case, tow rope PayPal Zhejiang Jiuzhou Group Co., Ltd. "3.5", and the explosion left people bitter lesson.

    1 explosion causes burning.

    Flammable, oxidizer, and ignition source, referred to as the three elements of combustion. ratchet tie dowm The explosion was severe burning, explosion energy (physical energy, chemical energy or nuclear energy) in an instant quick release or rapid conversion of energy into mechanical work and other phenomena caused by the explosion conditions are: temperature, pressure, concentration of explosives. Explosion caused by a centrifuge is mainly limited by space, flammable gas mixture explosion, that explosion explosive substances (chemical explosive).

    Explosive substance an explosion process with the following three characteristics: exothermic reaction process, the process fast and automatically transmitted, the process generates a large number of gaseous products. These three conditions are any chemical reaction can become explosive reaction must have, and these three are interrelated, are indispensable.

    2 proof of the basic principles.

    The basic principle of proof by analyzing the characteristics of the explosion in order to take appropriate preventive measures. Prevent the emergence of the first process to limit the development of the second process, protection against the third process. The basic principles are as follows:

    (1) to prevent the formation of explosive mixtures;

    (2) strict control of ignition sources;

    (3) cut off the explosion of transmission;

    (4) reduced explosion pressure and shock wave on the personnel, equipment and building damage;

    (5) detection alarm.

    3 Centrifuge Explosion safety technical measures.

    3.1 to prevent formation of flammable system.

    Explosive material in the centrifuge for the time, can be filled with combustible gas within the centrifuge, once the centrifuge due to static or other reasons caused by sparks produced by the combustion centrifuge explosion. Therefore, the solution centrifugal containing inflammable materials, should ensure that the enclosed explosion-proof centrifuge. When using inert gas or other gas protection, such as nitrogen filled to the centrifuge replacement within the air inside so the oxygen concentration was maintained in a safe range. Control the oxygen concentration, oxygen concentration monitoring method can be used generally, strict control of oxygen concentration.

    Must first ensure the stability of nitrogen in the gas source and operating rules strictly Anzhao operation, since the two previously mentioned incidents were not due to Caozuo personnel in the conduct under the protection of nitrogen will open the valve and open the centrifuge under the Liao, the solution into the high-speed rotation centrifuge, static spark set off a mixture of toluene, resulting in centrifuge explosion.

    When the nitrogen pressure for the nitrogen system deficiencies or failure, the alarm by alarm, automatic parking; in the centrifuge starts, you must use nitrogen gas replacement of the centrifuge system, by detecting oxygen concentration of 1% to 2% can only drive; when the centrifuge into the liquid, the liquid and lotion on the float must be protected with nitrogen to prevent air into the liquid or with the end of the vortex liquid into the centrifuge with foam fog; power outage for the realization of nitrogen purge able to work normally require regular closed solenoid valve used to guarantee nitrogen pipeline valve in the power failure, remains open.
    Particular, note that the transformation of existing enterprises in centrifuges, the inertia of the centrifuge to protect against the reform, we should set the appropriate facilities, such as online oxygen detection system, chain protection device, or easily protected as inert gas source of instability, mismanagement, misuse, because the system closed, causing more serious centrifuge explosion.

    3.2 to eliminate, control ignition sources.

    Energy explosion fire main fire, hot surfaces, friction and impact, adiabatic compression, chemical reaction heat, electrical sparks, static electricity sparks, lightning, etc.. Therefore, there is fire and explosion hazards on site, on the fire should be sufficient attention, and to take strict control measures.

    In the centrifuge design for sports items should ensure that adequate security space in order to eliminate possible mechanical friction and impact, at the same time, centrifugal system must eliminate static measures. For the brake, not by mechanical friction brake devices are generally used in the form of electrical braking. In addition, the transmission belt, then use anti-static tape, to eliminate or reduce the possibility of static electricity. Enterprises in the purchase centrifuges should be configured for a more accurate centrifuge manufacturing requirements, such as: configuration explosion-proof motor, explosion-proof button scene, explosion-proof solenoid valves, proximity switches explosion-proof, explosion-proof Fence, anti-static belts, static grounding, inverter control, braking, nitrogen protection, the oxygen content of online testing. However, not all occasions are required to be explosion-proof configuration, should the actual process, operating environment, the appropriate configuration.

    Flammable and explosive materials during transportation should be strictly according to GB12158-2006 "General Guidelines for preventing electrostatic accidents" in the implementation of the requirements. Particular attention to the reaction vessel to the centrifuge tube between the anti-static material under treatment.

    In addition, the explosion risk areas should use non-sparking brass, alloy or other tools, use explosion-proof electronic bell, etc.; action scene no smoking, prohibited fireworks, do not use cell phones. Workplace should be regular lightning, static testing to ensure safety.

    3.3 isolation block to prevent the spread of the accident.

    The previously mentioned two incidents were due to centrifuge after the explosion, ignited release from the reactor bottom valve solution containing inflammable materials, which quickly spread to the entire workshop. As the excess storage of dangerous chemicals plant, which exploded all indoor equipment burning incident to collapse destroyed, resulting in expansion of the accident.

    First, centrifugal separation region in a separate compartment should be set within, and between other production areas separated by fire walls solid, and should ensure that sufficient relief area, while strengthening regional ventilation centrifuge. Centrifugal working area should be strictly controlled the number of site operators.

    Second, enterprises should strictly control workplace hazardous chemicals to be stored. Qualified enterprises to make full use of pipeline. When the work site need to use bottled material directly feeding, should be set aside dedicated storage area in the middle of materials, material storage areas and production operations area should be separated by fire walls indeed, as far as possible to use solvent-free material stack region. Centrifugal operating area store dangerous chemicals is prohibited, in particular, should pay attention to centrifugal residue shall not be deposited in the centrifuge room.

    3.4 improve the centrifugal process, selection of new centrifuges.

    Nitrogen protection system in the centrifuge set-line oxygen detector and pressure transmitter sensor, during operation of the centrifuge on the oxygen concentration detection cavity, the implementation of quantitative controls, control the oxygen content within the safe range (ie oxygen concentration to ensure the machine in an explosive outside the explosion limits of the medium).
In the centrifuge equipment failure, staff misuse of the dangerous state, through the automatic alarm, start the chain of protection devices and safety equipment to achieve security of discharge until the shutdown accident and a series of operations to ensure system security.
    3.5 Effective monitoring and timely treatment.

    Centrifuge operating area in strict accordance with GB50493-2009 "Petroleum and Chemical combustible gas and toxic gas detection alarm design" requirements, set combustible gas and toxic gas detection and alarm devices, and interlock with forced ventilation facilities. If the centrifuge in case of leakage alarm detector can be set within the concentration range of security alerts, can be early detection, early exclusion, early control and prevention of accidents and the spread of the expansion.

    4 Conclusion.

    Safety factors that affect safety during some of the unsafe behavior and the unsafe state of the two aspects of workers in the education and guidance to improve safety awareness, we should object to control the unsafe state of the first place. Unsafe acts of people affected by many factors, the same time, another strong sense of human security, as may also be guilty of such mistakes. If we take the matter of the unsafe state control, and can effectively improve the security of the system.

    Chemical industry, pharmaceutical industry production of centrifugal separation process generally involves flammable solvent, centrifuge during operation of security requirements have become the primary selection. Centrifuge inert gas protection, on-line oxygen detection technology and automatic pressure transmitter, a special chain of protection of new technologies, make the system more secure, better quality assurance. In particular the application of intelligent control technology, the traditional centrifugal separation equipment will enable the safety and automation has been a huge upgrade, to ensure the safety and reliability of system.

    References.

    [1] Cai Fengying, et al. Chemical Safety Engineering [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2001,:

    [2] Hui-Xin. Separation process and equipment [M]. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2008:

    [3] Administration of national security. Safety Assessment [M]. 3rd edition book, Coal Industry Press, 2005; 477-517

    [4] Electrical equipment for explosive gas atmospheres [S]. Standards of national security regulations.

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