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New energy: a breakthrough in human technological revolution, the fourth

 
    The history of human development has occurred in the three technological revolution, these three are mainly from the new technology revolution, the birth and application of production began.booster cables In recent years, some experts suggested that the fourth technological revolution is coming, and new energy technology revolution will be a breakthrough fourth technology revolution.
    Recalling the context of human development of the technological revolution, new technological revolution forward,battery clip learn from historical lessons, to seize the rare opportunity, China will blaze a new path of modernization.
    Trend: the fourth leading new energy technology revolution.

    Technological revolution and the industrial revolution can not eliminate the economic cycle,tow rope but the crisis is turning often. CAS President Lu Yongxiang at the Chinese Academy of Sciences 2009 annual meeting of prophecy, humanity has the fourth technological revolution brewing in the international financial crisis, ratchet tie dowm and the new energy revolution will be the key to a breakthrough in the scientific and technological revolution.

    In the past 100 years, human consumption of the Earth over millions of years by the concentration of hydrocarbons formed half of oil is over "supply vertex." And a lot of consumption of coal, oil and other fossil energy difference is ready to come out of the new energy, renewable energy will be re-oriented structure of energy consumption and energy use patterns, and thus birth to another new energy-driven world of new technologies and new industries revolution.

    New energy is outside the range of traditional energy forms of energy. United Nations Development Programme put new energy into the following three categories: large and medium hydropower; new renewable energy, including small hydropower, solar energy, wind energy, modern biomass, geothermal energy, ocean energy; through biomass. While countries from the national conditions, development of alternative energy, especially renewable energy development have different emphases, however, three of which focus on energy development is becoming the focus of great power.

    Solar energy is expected to become the preferred alternative.

    According to Xinhua News Agency reporter Ou Sa November 2006 report, Massachusetts Institute of Sustainable Development, Dean of Bradford Prometheus in the newly published "Sun Revolution," a book predicted that solar energy will become in the next 20 years effectiveness of the best, most affordable alternative energy sources. U.S. Department of Defense National Security Space Office (NSSO) hosted more than 170 domestic and foreign experts to participate in a research report submitted proposal, the United States should begin within 10 years, experimental space solar power. October 2007, Japan's Kyodo News reported that, according to the study group's report, if the universe can be built solar power plant, solar energy collected within one year is equivalent to the Earth has proven reserves of conventional energy sources combined. The report predicts that by 2050, space solar power station is expected to begin to meet the energy needs on Earth.

    According to Itar-Tass reported that in December 2008, the world's largest solar power station has been put into use in Portugal, the annual power generation capacity up to 93 million 10 million watts, enough to ensure that 30 000 households with electricity. April 2009 the United States, "San Francisco Chronicle," explained that San Francisco-based Pacific (11.80,0.24,2.08%), natural gas and electric company plans to start from 2016 to Solaren purchase from space solar power, the two companies has signed a 15-year contract. According to the plan and contract, Solaren will use to send to a geosynchronous orbit satellite solar panels to collect solar energy and convert it into a radio frequency energy and transport back to the ground receiving station in California, and then RF energy into electrical energy, the final and into the Pacific Gas and Electric Company for the commercial power grid. Japanese government from 2009 started the "universe solar power" project. This will not only help expand the scope of the use of space, but also help solve global warming and energy issues.

    Solar World Conference is held biennially, the members of participants has grown to 34 countries and regions, development and utilization of solar energy, has attracted more and more countries of concern. It is reported that so far only solar energy needs of mankind less than 0.1%. However, supporters believe that the use of solar energy in the world in search of alternative energy and stop climate change, driven by massive investment in a solar may now dawn of the era.

    Development of bio-fuel prospect.

    Biomass as a chemical state energy, not only to generate electricity, heat, and can be transformed into liquid fuel and bio-based products, is a large-scale alternative to fossil fuels to renewable energy, so many countries in the development of biofuels, show broad prospects.

    Currently, the U.S. and Brazil is the world's bio-fuel ethanol-producing countries, the share of global ethanol production ethanol production more than 70%. In 2007, Europe (mainly Germany) and biodiesel production capacity has reached 5 million tons (about 5.8 billion liters). According to the International Energy Agency statistics, the oil produced worldwide in 2001 to 57% for transportation, which is energy-hungry cars. By 2007, the global vehicle population has been more than 800 million annual global vehicle production is still more than 70 million expected by 2020 the global vehicle population will reach 1.2 billion or more. Global 62% of oil produced will be used for transportation in the field. Brazil 3 / 4 of the new vehicles can use pure ethanol to pure gasoline from the mixture of fuel. United States, to 2012 the federal government to buy half of the vehicles will be plug-in hybrids or electric vehicles. Sweden proposed that by 2020 no longer dependent on foreign oil, the main use of forest wastes to produce ethanol fuel. Biofuels will also be widely used in the production and the daily needs of residents. May 2004, the World Wildlife Foundation and the German Institute for Applied Ecology research report were published in 2020, 15% of western industrial countries the source of electricity generation from bio-energy, there will be 100 million households use bio-fuels.

    Corn, soybeans and sugar cane and other food and oil crops as raw materials to produce ethanol not only takes up a lot of land and "competing with food," and may damage forests, wetlands and grasslands, creating new environmental and ecological disaster. In order to resolve these contradictions, the second generation of biotechnology research and development has made significant progress. Development of bio-fuel second key technology is the catalytic enzyme technology, enzyme is a biological catalyst, can biochemical reactions carried out in mild conditions was more rapid and efficient. New type of enzyme can break down the cellulose in plants into fermentable sugars, and further into ethanol. Financial support through the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory and an industrial partner, on the cellulose enzyme catalysis to optimize, so that the second generation of bio-technology investment in 2010 is expected to industrialization and commercialization.

    Second-generation biofuels have the following advantages:

    First, the car engine can be used directly without transformation of bio-fuel ethanol mixed with gasoline or diesel; Secondly, second-generation bio-fuel ethanol catalytic enzyme technology costs will rapidly decline in the next few years, with the feasibility of large-scale industrial production ; third, straw and other cellulosic agricultural wastes rich in resources. January 2007 the United States released a report, in 2027, bio-fuel ethanol will have 20% of the gasoline market, and create 110 billion U.S. dollars of economic growth, saving 50 billion U.S. dollars in oil import costs and an additional 240 million jobs.

    Fusion to solve global energy problems.

    From 1954, the Soviet Union has built the world's first nuclear power plant, the world has 435 nuclear power plants, nuclear power in total electricity generation accounts for 17% of the world, of which 80% of France's electricity comes from nuclear energy. Experts believe that once controlled nuclear fusion to solve the problem of global energy issues will be resolved.

    June 2005, from the European Union, the United States, Japan, Russia, South Korea and China's representation in Moscow reached an agreement to determine Cadarache in France for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor construction land. Nuclear power plants around the world today is through the uranium, plutonium and other heavy metals nuclear fission reaction took place to get great energy, and nuclear fusion reaction is mainly extracted from the seawater isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear fusion reactions, resulting in tremendous energy. Not only the hydrogen in sea water on Earth is almost inexhaustible, and the fusion process produces very little radiation, does not produce nuclear waste, pollution of the environment is small. Scientists can extract a liter of seawater 1 / 6 grams of tritium, the fusion after the release of energy equivalent to 300 liters of gasoline combustion releases energy. Professor of Physics, Zhejiang University, Mao Sheng is that tritium extracted from sea water technology has been mastered, the problem is controllable nuclear fusion process can not be achieved, in theory at least after 30 years together seawater into energy.

    Participation in the development of several major powers in nuclear fusion technology and applications international cooperation, are actively fusion problem. U.S. scientists have suggested that fusion centers made by imitating solar energy principle, to create a mini "artificial sun", to explore new energy sources for the future of hope. December 2008, the British "Daily Telegraph" newspaper reported that, if successful, scientists will establish real fusion power station towards the first step. As a test of hydrogen fuel widespread in the universe, "artificial sun" will help scientists to explore an almost inexhaustible source of energy.

    Some experts predicted that the human is expected to achieve controlled nuclear fusion in 50 years to solve energy problems facing the world. "By 2050, we will be able to use a security nature, can provide reliable, does not emit carbon unlimited supply of fuel - this is the fusion power."

    China's modernization of the road: not afford to miss another opportunity.

    China's economic modernization has missed three historic opportunity. The first was in 1793, missed the first opportunity for the spread of the industrial revolution; second time was from 1842 to 1860 started the second industrial revolution missed opportunities; the third time is the mid-50s from the 20th century to the mid-70s missed the third industrial revolutionary technology transfer opportunities. Is approaching the fourth technological revolution, China is both rare opportunities and severe challenges. China can not re-take the United States and Europe, "pollution first, treatment later" old path of industrialization, we must embark on a high technological content, good economic returns, low resource consumption, little environmental pollution and full use of advantages in human resources, a new type of industrialization and modernization.

    No there is no national modernization of agricultural modernization.

    In 2007, China's GDP, the added value of the first production still accounts for 11.8%; the employment structure, the first industrial labor force employment rate was 40.8%; rural population of 7.27 million, still the country's population 1.321 billion of 55%. China is in the traditional agriculture to modern agriculture, rural traditional society to modern society a crucial stage. Many countries to achieve sustainable agricultural development and modernization of agriculture has provided us with valuable experience:

    1, take effective measures to protect arable land.

    China has accounted for 7% of the world's arable land to feed 22% of the world's population. The problem is China's population continues to increase, while the arable land is shrinking, from 1996 to 2005, more than 100 million mu of arable land area decreased, down to 1.4 mu per capita arable land, only the world average of 1 / 3. 2020 the country can save 18 million mu of cultivated land, on the long-term food supply and security of our country have a significant impact.

    Land is the basic livelihood guarantee the majority of farmers, but also for food and other major agricultural products (19.34,0.55,2.93%), self-sufficiency and food safety, we must take effective measures to save 18 million mu of cultivated land "red line."

    2, vigorously develop modern agriculture.

    The main features of modern agricultural production scale, enterprise management, maximize product standardization and efficiency, agricultural products processing rate of over 90%. From small-scale farmers in China and decentralized management of reality, the existing land contract relationships remain stable and long-neutral basis, promote agricultural business pattern, and continue the development of agricultural productivity to meet the new requirements, and unswervingly follow China characteristics of agricultural modernization.

    3, to use modern science and technology, the means of production and management to transform traditional agriculture, sustainable agricultural development.

    According to statistics, the reform and opening up investment in agriculture accounts for the proportion of investment in state-owned units for more than 5%, while in 1995, the proportion of investment in agriculture only 2%. From 1949 to 1979, 30 years, the country built reservoir (100,000 cubic meters or more) 87085, effective irrigation area of the country has 7.3 million mu, accounting for the world's irrigated area of 1 / 4. But the reform and opening up 30 years ago, only the construction of various types of reservoir 827. Many developed countries have great support agricultural infrastructure construction, promote agricultural mechanization and information technology, especially the increase in R & D investment, to develop biotechnology to improve agricultural productivity, accelerate agricultural modernization. These experiences are also noteworthy.
    Energy is a powerful driving force to achieve a comprehensive modernization.

    China is in the process of industrialization, industry and agriculture still accounts for a large proportion, the National People's rapidly growing demand for basic necessities, the energy needed to expand. We must use clean energy, must be energy saving, emission reduction, man and nature, harmony between man and environment, sustainable development, to find a new path of modernization.

    1, the effective development and utilization of coal resources.

    According to Ministry of Land Resources in 2002, "informed the National Mineral Resources and Reserves" released data, China's coal reserves and resources and the foundation were 686.062 billion tons and 334.088 billion tons, ranking first in the world; recoverable reserves of 204 billion tons, ranking the world second. The main problem is not only the recovery of a low utilization rate and suffered serious losses, but also in the process of consumption of significant amounts of pollutants.

    According to statistics, from 1949 to 2003, the total mining 35 billion tons, while consumption Que more than 100 billion tons of resources, recovery Pingjun than 30%, well below coal recovery rate in the developed countries the level of up to 80% ; of coal in China's energy consumption structure is about 70%, but the use of low efficiency, particularly in large coal bed methane burned in vain, to become one of the main environmental pollution sources. If you rely on advanced technology, especially the use of clean coal technologies, exploitation of coal resources, not only over the longer term, reduce foreign energy dependence, and can greatly improve the ecological environment.

    2, active development and use of nuclear energy.

    According to "China Economic Times" reported in 2009, China's installed nuclear power capacity have so far been put into operation about 900 million kilowatts, but only the national power generating capacity of about 2%. Adjust the energy structure of China's priority is to accelerate the development of nuclear power.

    In nuclear power development strategy, adhere to the development of advanced pressurized water reactor nuclear power million-kilowatt-class technical route, the current in accordance with the thermal neutron reactor - fast reactor - controlled nuclear fusion reactor, "three-step" work the steps. Actively follow the world trend of nuclear power technology development, independent research and development of HTR, the inherent safety of pressurized water reactor and fast neutron breeder reactor technology, according to the progress of the technology research and development, timely start testing or demonstration projects. According to Xinhua News Agency reporter Cai Min January 2007 report, China's new generation of "artificial sun" experimental device - all in Hefei superconducting non-circular section nuclear fusion experimental device works by a major national science academy's acceptance of professional groups, and physical experiment, a number of successful discharge. China may become the first country to achieve one of fusion power generation.

    3, and vigorously develop renewable energy sources such as biofuels.

    China has abundant wind energy, hydropower, geothermal and ocean energy and other renewable energy resources, each year reached 700 million tons of straw, agricultural residues rich in natural resources, development of bio-fuel has great potential. In response to growing pressure on resources and the environment, economic and social sustainable development, China's government planning, by 2020, renewable energy accounted for the proportion of primary energy supply, from the current 8% to 15%.

    Energy is the economic and social sustainable development and a strong driving force of blood, new energy development and wide application, not only to protect the energy supply, and will continue to improve the environment. Out a new path of modernization in China will not only promote the comprehensive modernization of our country, and coordinated development of national economies will make a significant contribution.
    Looking back on the three technological revolutions of human

    First, the steam engine, "changed the world."

    Innovation in the technology revolution tools occupy a major position, the fuse is the Industrial Revolution. 1733, the British invented the Lancashire workers shuttle, in 1764, weavers 哈格里沃斯 Jenny invented spinning wheel, eight times more efficient. In 1768, Arkwright invented the hydraulic spinning machine, which is the world's first "big machine", the world's first factory was born.

    17th century scientific revolution has put forward the "fire water pumping engine" principle, a large number of experts and producers on the basis of research and experiments, 1776, Watt made a highly efficient steam engine, in 1785, began producing steam engines. Watt completed the power machine to machine tools from the technical system of production, his great success, "changed the world."

    Extensive application of the steam engine, greatly accelerating the pace of the British Industrial Revolution, led the railways, shipping, and the rapid development of large-scale production plant, causing energy consumption to bio-energy mainly from the transition to coal-based. In 1870, Britain's coal mining total volume has accounted for 51.5% of the world. Germany's use of coal chemistry, scientific achievements, the rapid development of the synthetic chemical industry. In 1873, the German dye industry output value, quality all over the UK. Synthetic dye industry led the textile industry (synthetic fibers), the pharmaceutical industry (aspirin, etc.), paint industry and the synthetic rubber industry. Many natural products are replaced by chemicals, human beings into "chemical synthesis of the times", "artificial products of the New World (14.23, -0.71, -4.75%)."

    Second, power technology "to create a new era."

    Power revolution originated in Europe, completed in the United States. In 1866, the German Siemens invented peacekeeping motor has done his brother in London wrote: "Power is very promising, it will open a new era."

    In 1876 the United States to celebrate the occasion of the 100th anniversary of independence, held in Philadelphia, 37 countries participated in the International Expo exhibition, the United States exhibited a high-power engines and motors. Following Siemens, the Bell invented the telephone in 1876, Edison invented the electric light in 1879, these three inventions "illuminate the path of human electrification." Driven by technological revolution in the power, the United States, European countries and Japan have the power building as a key national construction projects, electrification of rising worldwide craze.

    Engine and electric motor applications, leading to the emergence of a new industry and development. In 1886, the German Daimler-installed in a carriage, he developed the engine, the world's first car was born. In 1927, Ford Motor Company's car sales reached 15 million, the United States as "car of the Kingdom." In 1903, the United States the Wright brothers, installed in the glider 12 horsepower gasoline engine, the successful test flight, "marks the era of the human into the air."

    Road and aviation transport and spread of electricity, causing the energy consumption structure gradually shifted from a coal-based oil-based. Statistics show that by 1862, world oil production is only 300 million barrels, in the 19th century, during the last decades, the oil industry to become the world's largest and the most widespread commercial and industrial.

    Third, the computer - an extension of the human brain.

    1944, under the leadership of the United States Department of Defense began developing the computer made in 1946, the world's first electronic digital computer ENIAC, opened a new era in computer science, information technology revolution pulled off.

    Computer is a tool for information processing. If the other man-made tool is an extension of human hands, then the computer instead of the human brain as a tool for information processing, it can be said that the extension of the human brain. 1996, the first faster than a trillion floating-point operations per second supercomputer inception, the world's largest computer manufacturers have been taking place in a contest. June 2008, the U.S. International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) and the U.S. Department of Energy announced that the U.S. has developed a new generation of the world's fastest computer, the maximum operating speed of 1,000 trillion times per second. February 2009 IBM announced that it will build a platform capable of 20 million billion times per second the computer floating-point operations, the computing power equivalent to more than 200 million notebook computers. Argentina's "21st Century Trends Weekly" web site, quoting a report of Microsoft, said people with physical boundaries between computers will disappear in 2020.

    Three of production changes, greatly improved productivity, labor efficiency and economic development. Some economists believe that now with the "productivity = (employee + work + working tool object) × science and technology", said the formula had been enough, the new formula should be "productivity = (employee + work + working tool objects) high technological power ", that is, the three elements of technology on productivity is not only the role of multiplication by using multiple terms, but by power series up.

    Background energy consumption.

    In the world economy increased dramatically accelerate the process of development and wealth, the large consumption of fossil energy, especially coal and oil resources, serious damage to the environment. About 40% of global deaths and pollution. The World Health Organization survey, 12 million people around the world because of drinking contaminated water and suffering from various diseases, each year 25 million children worldwide die from drinking contaminated water caused the disease. December 2008, NASA's latest satellite monitoring data show that from 2003 to 2007 of five years, Earth Antarctica, Alaska and the Arctic land ice in Greenland has more than 2 trillion tons melted. Global warming become more apparent. Water temperature rise not only lead to massive release of methane permanently frozen soil, and sea level rise threat to many island countries and coastal cities and regional security. Environmental degradation and global warming has also caused more serious spontaneous combustion hazard. September 2008 "Time" magazine published the article pointed out that in recent decades, the number of floods and storms to increase 7.4% annually in 2007, the 197 million disaster-affected people, there were 164 million flood victims. April 2009 development aid organization Oxfam International issued a report forecasts that by 2015, global drought, floods, food shortages affect the number will reach 375 million.

    The United States to develop algae bio-energy technology. The picture shows the Kentucky Center of Applied Energy Research Seed algae reactor.

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