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Detailed development of embedded computer technology, new trends

    1, PC technology to promote the development of embedded computer technology

    Embedded computer is embedded in the industrial system itself, in the industrial environment can be extremely stable and reliable long-term continuous industrial-type computers. With Intel CPU and Microsoft DOS / WINDOWS architecture evolved into a de facto standard,ratchet tie dowm ISA / PCI bus Rugged Industrial PC (IPC) began to penetrate the industry. IPC despite the industrial transformation (such as the abolition of a large board, passive backplane, plug-in templates, industrial power, steel sealed chassis cooling slightly positive pressure, temperature, automatic detection and adjustment, etc.), but its essence remains not industrial-type PC, can not fundamentally solve the major motherboard horizontal, anti-vibration shock poor, non-uniform heat dissipation, component failure rate,booster cables mean time to repair (MTTR) long, difficult issues such as maintenance, it is difficult to meet the industrial control tasks demanding. In order to meet the market demand for industrial-based computers, VME bus in addition to IPC, but produced a series of PC-based, and ISA / PCI bus standard compatible embedded computer, which is more representative of the CompactPCI / PXI bus, AT96 busbattery clip , STD bus, STD32 bus, PC/104 and PC/104-Plus bus embedded industrial control machines.

    2, various bus embedded computer to high performance, reliable direction

    (1) VME bus IPC is still the mainstream product, but began to integrate into the PC technology

    Historically, VME Bus industrial control machines has been the first choice of many models of embedded industrial applications.

    In 1981,tow rope Mostek, Motorola, Philip and Signetics invented the VME bus, VME bus industrial control computer from the image processing, industrial control, military communications in real-time processing and is widely used. In 1987, VME bus was approved as international standard IEEE1014-1987.

    VME bus interface for the two 96-pin connector pin-hole P1 and P2 (6U Eurocard), in which the outer two rows of pin P2 defined by the user, in order to meet customers' specific requirements. VME bus data width of 32 bits, the maximum bus speed is 40MB/sec.

    In 1996 the new standard VME64 (ANSI/VITA1-1994) raised to the bus 64-bit data width, the maximum data transfer rate of 80MB/sec. Developed by the FORCECOMPUTERS VME64x bus specification Bus speed to 320MB/sec.

    IPC is a VME bus real-time control platform, most of the running real-time operating systems such as UNIX, VxWorks, PSOS, VRTX, PDOS, LynOS and VMEXEC, provided by the OS manufacturer-specific software development tools to develop applications.

    VME bus OEM products supported by a large number of manufacturers, mainly Motorola's 68K series of microprocessors, such as 25M/33M of 68060. More and more manufacturers of VME bus SBC began to use Intel's and AMD's microprocessors, such as DY4Systems, ConcurrentTechnologies, VMIC, PEPModular, Computers, and SBSEmbeddedComputers other companies, new products have been used a 500MHz Pentium Ⅲ treatment device, there are some other products with PowerPC processors, but market share is small.

    VXI bus Federation was established in 1987, its goal is to define standards for board-level instruments that extend VME instrumentation bus. VXI bus, VME bus for the IPC to the kernel, the European card size expansion into four: VXIA (3.9inx6.3), VXIB (in9.2inx6.3in), VXIC (9.2inx13.4in) and VXID (14.4inx13. 4in), which is now the most commonly used VXIC specifications.

    In 1993, VXI specification was adopted as the international standard IEEE1155. IPC provides VXI bus types of operating systems DOS, WINDOW3.1, WINDOWS95, WINDOWSNT, Solaris1 and 2, HP-UX, MacOS and SCOUnix.

    VXI and VME bus from the bus industrial computer running the operating system can be seen: VXI bus compatible industrial computer manufacturers hope the mainstream computer market of the rich and affordable application software development kit, software, peripherals and drivers, while the VME bus can only use OS manufacturer or third-party partners to provide dedicated development environment and peripheral work.

    (2) reinforcement of the ISA / PCI bus industrial machine still occupy a certain market share

    Today's industrial control machine has undergone great changes over the past dedicated closed architecture PC technology was quickly replaced by an open architecture, which is one of the most important reason for software compatibility. Industrial control computer users in the past and now want to use the familiar desktop PC, the same operating system and development tools, which led to open the desktop PC in a direct application in industrial environments. However, the desktop PC technology is the $ 200 billion per year for the commercial aircraft market, rather than the relatively small industrial computer market, it does not have industrial performance: strong anti-vibration, shock, heat, moisture and has a quick fix ability (MTTR generally less than 5 minutes). Desktop PC technology derived from the ISA bus on the rugged computer industry has been very widely used.

    In June 1992, Intel has developed a fast open-standard PCI bus, as a local and low-level internal processor bus. Within two years almost every processor manufacturer as the PCI bus inside the computer chip-level interconnect, and naturally developed into a board-level interconnect bus. June 1995 PCISIG officially announced the PCI local bus specification version 2.1, also introduced the first standard PICMG PCI / ISA passive backplane bus standard, so that reinforcement of the PCI / ISA bus industrial machines come out. Currently, PCI / ISA IPC major manufacturers: TexasMicrosystems, TeknorIndustrialComputers, IndustrialComputerSource, TrentonTerminals, I-Bus and Taiwan Yan Yang (AAEON), Advantech (ADVANTEC), Arbor (Arbor), Volkswagen, Beijing Kang Extension and other companies.

    Although rugged industrial computer motherboard based on a large desktop machine industrialization transformation, but its backplane technology there are still many shortcomings: poor thermal design, poor connection, not the standard template size and the limited PCI slots (maximum 4) and so on. Although the maintainability and reliability has been improved, but still can not meet the requirements of industrial control. Currently PCI / ISA IPC key control system to do the detection and management of machine.

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