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According to the cause of the electrical wire and cable fire fire prevention countermeasures

[abstract] : with the rapid development of economy, electrical fire present high-risk trend. In view of the wire and cable fire hazard, and how to take effective measures of fire prevention is very important, this article proposes of their views.

[key words] : cable; Fire prevention countermeasures

In recent years, along with the rapid economic development of our country, caused by electrical fire increased year by year, which due to cable reasons which caused by the accounts for a considerable proportion of the fire. Such as on October 15, 1995, shandong province ZhangYingZhen Qingdao the original bags.for its location shoes Co.,ratchet tie dowm LTD. (South Korea owned) technology to manufacture workshop for cable short circuit fire and burned the workshop of 10386 square meters and a large number of all construction machinery and equipment, raw materials, direct property loss 27.858 million yuan. December 28, 2001 at 2 a.m. 23 points, GongLian in xuanwu district in the south a number 16 GongLian day ceramic agricultural and sideline products market clothing for short circuit ignition cable hall fuel fire, clothing wei on duty room hall to the south of the 14 booth and its internal items burned up, and the loss of 89375 yuan.

With frequent fire accident, people on the wire and cable fire risk deeper understanding, the relevant departments of the fire retardant wire and cable of performance requirements such as more and more is also high. Due to cable fire spread fast, fighting with the difficult, to cause a secondary damage, the recovery time is long, etc, will give the national economy and people's life and property to bring the huge losses, the author thinks that it is necessary to telecom cable fire prevention countermeasures are discussed, effectively reduce the electric wire electric cable fire accident, to ensure that the people's life and property security.

1. The wire and cable fire hazard factors and fire
1.1 wire and cable fire hazard
Electrical fire caused the personnel of the large number of death is an important reason for the fire burning in the production of toxic gases and smoke. The smoke has not only heat damage,booster cables such as choking poison and damage effect, and a reduction of light. According to the research, flue gas produced after 20 s can make the fire reduced to zero visibility, electricity wire and cable in through the cable trench, such as the cable laying cable tunnel fire flame spread at speeds of up to 2 m/min, if a "vertical", "closed the channel", "cable the corridor" pipeline, because "chimney" effect, the fire will spread more quickly. In addition, the wire and cable plastic insulation layer of burning with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the thermal decomposition, release a lot HCl, Cl2, CO and toxic gases, and fire to surrounding areas within the scope of the person or biological cause serious harm.

1.2 wire and cable fire factors
Cable from the insulation layer of oil leaching cable paper, crosslinking ethylene-propylene rubber polyethylene, the material such as oil flax, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to the sheath material is inflammable substance. When the local cable ignition and combustion heat to melt happens, more than neighboring cable fire temperature, will cause the cable group delay burning. Lead to wire and cable fire the factor mainly have the following:

1.2.1 cable in improper design flow. Cable load flow improper selection, part of the cable long-term full load or often overload running, high temperature and the cable channel, tunnel hydrous the cable insulation aging, moisture, heat cause a short-circuit spontaneous combustion.

1.2.2 cable installation construction undeserved. In construction, some units in order to reduce the cost, not take fire prevention measures and mixed and cables are too centralized, pile of pressure serious, heat dissipation bad, often put light-off will produce poisonous smoke after the high pressure and low voltage cables in cable laying together; Some construction workers in the cables laid no strictly according to procedures and process requirement construction, often for blow, touch, pressure, twist and cause cable outer security layer damage, easy to fill damp, the runtime insulating layer can be breakdown produce electric arc, cause burning fires.

1.2.3 cable fault.
(1) make technology coarse, insulation moisture, cause cable head and terminal box in the operation of a failure and spontaneous combustion explosion; (2) of cable technician process operation, lax, and do not pay attention to health, impurity, dirt, etc are clear enough to cause ill touch interface; (3) joint process not jing, production quality is not high, fire prevention measures less, in fault cases by the high voltage, large current to the impact of the joint burst into flames. (4) cable grounding is poor. Ground wire welding rickety, contact undesirable, resistance to large cause cable grounding than normal fault current short circuit current small, make the current protector can not be cut off the fault, and appear arc, edm.

1 other reasons:
(1) immersion electrical equipment failure oil injection on fire, oil into the cable tunnel caused by fire in cable. (2) in cable trench cover lax, electric welding slag fall into the cable channel sparks caught fire. (3) mice led to cable while, the fire spread. (4) near the high temperature of the oil on the accumulation of the way the cable pulverized coal spontaneous combustion on fire. (5) the cable fire prevention lack of understanding, inadequate enforcement rules and regulations, battery clipa fire hazard can not be found out.

2, wire and cable fire prevention countermeasures

Cable fire prevention measures is to reduce cable the important means of fuel on fire delay, the key is in the case primarily. Mainly from three aspects to achieve: the flame retardant wire and cable, material fire prevention and fire prevention management.

2.1 the flame retardant wire and cable
"Power engineering cable in the" code for design of already made non-flammable cables, fireproof cables as cable of the important measures of fire prevention, the selection of of all kinds of flame retardant cable made specific provision. Habit will have a flame retardant bundle laying cable characteristics, that is, all that can be through the bundle cable burning experiment cable called flame retardant cable. At present the main types of including the flame retardant wire and cable, no for low smoke, non-halogen, or low for low smoke, non-halogen, flame retardant cable, fireproof cables. These products because of its manufacturing technology, performance characteristics of different, its application scope is different.

2.1.1 regular flame retardant wire and cable
Regular flame retardant wire and cable (hereinafter referred to as flame retardant cable) manufacturing is simple, low cost, is the largest amount of fire protection cable cable varieties. Characteristics of bundles of laying in conditions, the cable is burning when the spread of fire control within a certain range, avoid cable fire delay caused by disasters of the fuel, and improve the cable the whole line of fire prevention of the level. It according to test the bundle cloth of vertical root number cable (that is, the volume of air) and burning time divided into A, B and C three categories. At present, the A and B class flame retardant cable only in intensive degree high, laying fire hazard big cable line, or electric power stations, nuclear power station, subway, tunnel, high-storey building and other important is important place to use.

2.1.2 low smoke non-halogen non-flammable cables
Regular flame retardant cable in a fire burning will give off a lot of smoke and toxic gases such as hydrogen, its danger and cause loss of life and money than the harm of the fire itself more big. The fire accident casualties mostly because of poison gas, gas smothered to death. Low smoke non-halogen non-flammable cables not only has excellent flame retardant performance, and burning in almost do not produce the corrosive gas and toxic gases, produces only a small bit of smoke, reduce the to the instrument, the equipment corrosion and damage to human body, be helpful for fire fighting and rescue work of the fires. Low smoke non-halogen non-flammable cables assessment of flame retardant cable usually performance, corrosive, smoke concentration and toxic index. This kind of cable retarding properties through the bundle burning experiment, also points A, B and C 3 kinds. Burning gas corrosive degree is through the indirectly measuring combustion gas and electrical conductivity of aqueous solution pH value to determine, according to GB/T17650.2-1998 regulations testing methods and index; Smoke concentration is generally use cable combustion light transmittance to assess, test according to GB/T17651-1998 regulation methods and indicators; Toxic index test method by the user regulations. Halogen-free flame retardant cable than the mechanical properties of the ordinary cable is a bit poor, this is because the added some special additives be caused by. The cable the special performance as is shown in table 1. Low smoke non-halogen non-flammable cables used in subway, tunnel, ships and vehicles, and nuclear power station, the important of the high-rise building security requirements such as high places and important facilities.

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