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Communities, towns and villages in the fire fighting the problems and countermeasures

 

    First, the problems mentioned.

    Over the years residents of the fire losses in the share of the fire gradually increased,booster cables according to fire statistics in 2002, residents of fire damage fire loss accounted for 33.5 percent in 2002, fires accounted for the motherland of Hong Kong residents from the number of fire statistics The fifty percent or more. In practice, it is inevitable that a small fire was also not reported,battery clip no statistical situation. In view of this fire, the same can not ignore the residents, the residents do practice fire safety is also a concrete manifestation of Three; the same relationship to a comprehensive well-off society overall strategic objectives. Let us make a rough calculation. Fire to city residents, if a three-bedroom fire, the home at least 3-6 million in property losses more than 2 million yuan are indirect losses. tow rope Were estimated as follows:

    1. Loss of fixed furniture by 1 million; 2. Household appliances such as refrigerators,ratchet tie dowm washing machines, televisions, audio and video equipment 2 million; 3. Kitchen stove, cooking utensils, kitchenware, such as loss of 1 million; 4. Clothing, footwear and other clothing are 2 million yuan loss; 5. Camera, computer, books and information 1 million; 6. Windows and doors, tables, chairs, lamps loss of 2 million; 7. Walls, floors, roof top and other losses 1 million. Processing time of the fire and the legacy of 5 people spent two months, 2,000 yuan per person per month calculated by the total 2 million; which does not include the treatment of casualties and losses and brought the fire spread to neighbors the loss of more than only an ordinary family, the total loss of 12 million. Fire fighting in the countryside is not timely, ranging from houses and their property burned, the date of poorer, while in critical life, affecting the neighbors. This is because the basic structure of rural buildings to brick and wood-based, fire resistance rating lower, outside the area in 1984, the residents of Harbin Road fire; November 1, 1999 the residents of Shijiazhuang factory floor, the fire has caused more serious losses. If the fire damage in 2002 1.98 billion, then the residents of the fire losses last year, 19.8 × 33.5 ÷ 100 = 8 million. 800 million yuan is 10 million cost of a college student for three years!

    So, to say: do rural residents, urban community fire prevention work is also building a moderately prosperous society in an important part; do town residents and urban communities, fire prevention is a concrete manifestation of Practice Three! It is incumbent upon the officers and men of our contemporary sacred duty of the fire!

    Second, the current residents of the main reasons for frequent occurrence of fire.

    1. Laws and regulations relating to inadequate security. Behind the formulation of safety regulations and economic and social development. Especially the lack of supervision over the government and its departments, the government and its departments in fire prevention, fire fighting and rescue aspects of disaster relief responsibilities, rights and interests is not clear enough. Local government leaders are closely linked to the promotion and economic benefits, but with the social interests, security interests, combined with less, causing many local government leaders heavy economic, light security. Practical work in the security operation, said it important to dry up the secondary, not busy. In fact, that the next government work report and evaluation report objectively their own safety as in? There are many meetings on behalf of the fire or security department does not absorb the views and recommendations, the report prevalence of glossy, sum up experience and more achievements, shortcomings sum less mistakes, reporting more difficult, pioneering and innovative spirit, and absence of guidance on safety is frequent fires caused by public opinion and report guidance. In view of the State Council in 2000 formulated the "major responsibility for the safety accident investigation approach"; National People's Congress to supplement the laws, the General Assembly in 2002 adopted the "safety law", but still no specification of individual citizens, households, villages and towns organizations, community management units and grassroots organizations such as neighborhood committees, district offices in the security of life and production responsibilities, rights and obligations.

    2. Safety regulations are often inadequate education outreach specification. Shift the focus of the party's work to socialist modernization, the domestic and international situation has undergone profound changes. The cause of the fire to "Standardization Law," based on the experience of home and abroad has gradually prepared, and constantly revised, and gradually formed a fire with Chinese characteristics of the legal system.

    Such as the 1956 promulgated the "Regulations on Fire", 1984, implementation of the "People's Republic of the Fire Services Ordinance"; of the Ninth National People's Congress Standing Committee of the Ninth Conference on April 29, 1998 passed its first "Fire Act" . Since 1984, the national fire community, technology experts and scholars have compiled a GB16-87 and dozens of fire department and fire safety norms and other norms. "People's Republic of Construction Law", "Planning Act" regulations are a manifestation of the fire. However, due to safety regulations, safety education is not wide enough common sense, in-depth, the majority of the workers, peasants, intellectuals and even the national cadres, government leaders and agencies, enterprises and institutions in charge of groups of people do not know enough sense of security, little is known, has led to numerous security blind spots, such as the construction plans of towns and villages rarely reported to the fire department, but the local building department, land department and its affiliated agencies operate their own township-level operational planning, design, almost did not consider the fire problem. There are some of our local police station will be planted on the iron pickets sub fire exits and locked iron gates and other access plug the illegal practice of fire engines, as a safe and civilized community of advanced experience. Today, there are a considerable number of civil servants asked the fire brigade put out the fire is charged, little is known about the fire evacuation and escape methods. Brothers and sisters still do not understand the safe operation of working methods, such as the Tangshan spot flames perished Lindsey Department Store fire in 1993; February 2, 2003 Lake Harbin hotel fire on the very day representative. Second: Practice has proved that "Fire Act" enacted and promulgated the general lack of grass-roots views and full survey research firm, the quality is not high, logic is not precise enough, with great limitations. Excessive pre-conditions such as administrative punishment; punishment mechanisms and measures are not sufficiently binding; government functions is not clear enough fire; did not form the government is not as effective checks and oversight. Still under the planned economy is not out of the fire management executive order. As "Fire Act" supplement, Ministry of Public Security in May 2002 issued the "organs, enterprises and institutions to the fire safety community responsibility system" 61 of both the Ministry of Public Order. And rural areas, rural and urban communities do not belong to institutions, organizations and enterprises and institutions. Comparison of the exact title of freeze-frame only "urban communities and villages." Enterprises with government agencies and organizations have strict sense of the differences and the different operations. Do urban residents and rural communities can not rely on the work of the fire will be able to push out an order and need to promote, organize, mobilize, and other effective measures, to the planning, implementation, monitoring, implementation. Rely on legal, administrative, taking characteristics of modern science combined with the town's mass line. To fill this gap is not just fire agencies, the public security organ, a monologue, but the common responsibility of society as a whole. This means that legislation must be in the form of urban communities, towns and villages on fire work to make the appropriate legal, legal. Proposed in the "fire laws," as much as possible to make up for this deficiency, this part of a chapter or a train. The form of law to determine management institutions, management institutions and civil legal regulations in the performance of fire safety laws and regulations, the rights, responsibilities and obligations; norms of statutory public security organs and fire monitoring bodies the responsibilities, rights and obligations; norms related to land, planning, construction, business, design, and construction unit of the fire regulations in the implementation of the rights, responsibilities and obligations as a breakthrough in market access mechanism, review the legality of building a reasonable structure, supervision towns and cities to maintain a good community-based organizations build the corresponding fire fighting infrastructure, with the necessary mobile fire fighting equipment; fire from citizens and corporate knowledge to start the introduction of induction training mechanism as a prerequisite for employment, as the same person must obtain a special type of work eligible for appointment to the fire employment. Residents in the individual specifications and a clear social assistance in fire prevention and the responsibilities, rights and obligations. The formation of a clear division of responsibilities, management practices, supervision and promotion in place, mutual restraint, coordination of joint, modern fire rescue and timely new model of management and supervision.
    3. The safety of urban communities and rural fire started late, weak foundation.

    With the rapid expansion of city size, forming a pattern of villages surrounding the city. Large number of farmers and private enterprises into those bum. They are generally lower education level, without the fire safety training, in a rush of rich psychological avenues through exports a family, looking for business, it is easy to overlook fire safety. In urban communities, although urban planning, construction, fire and other multi-sectoral supervision of law enforcement, but also the constraints of laws, but many basic fire-fighting facilities exist to varying degrees reconstruction light pipe, construction and management, the phenomenon of out of touch.
    One performance: a kind of urban community planning, building a kind of acceptance, management and use of a kind, basically every day, change it. Planning and design led to the fire channel narrowed and blocked; occupy a buried pressure fire hydrant; fire signs missing. Is followed by an increase in illegal construction, and electrical lines Luanla random access common, rental housing chaos, an increase of three in one store. In short, highlights the potential of fire, the safety factor is reduced, frequent accidents. Second performance: the security has not been residents of the community fire safety training posts, do not know how the fire accident approach, the community's public fire protection facility layout insufficient households have no corresponding fire fighting and rescue equipment, when the district when a house fire As the family and the community's lack of fire fighting equipment, security duty room (including fire extinguishers, fire hose, nozzles, hydrant key and simple rescue tools such as ax, shovel, etc.), for fixed fire-fighting facilities and equipment not familiar with, will not be used, often helpless , hope the fire disappointed, only hope, "119." When we arrived, the fire brigade put out the fire has already missed the best time. Therefore, a more serious fire damage caused is not strange.
    4. Establish a sound social security mechanism has an adverse effect on safety. Due to lack of relevant laws and regulations and incentives. People on the public welfare indifference, apathy, "Multi-less attitude," the philistine philosophy. Encouraging the role of the market economy, the spread of money worship, people give up the security barrier; social security mechanism for lack of coordination, loss of working time involved in fire-fighting personnel losses, personal injury, death pension and other benefits and social security is not perfect, these problems can not be avoided are restricting the safety of community residents and village fire prevention and fire fighting and rescue work.

    Third, the countermeasures.

    1. Strictly regulate the legislative definition of urban communities (street office), village residents committee in the implementation of fire codes, fire safety management responsibilities, rights and obligations.

    2. Specification in the implementation of the Government and its functional departments fire planning, fire infrastructure obligations.

    3. Standard education administration and school fire awareness training in the implementation of the rights and obligations in education

    4. Norms of civil society organizations employment training employment training and education aspects of the fire qualified obligations of citizens to establish and improve fire safety induction training for the job, the better the fire education from the gateway to start employment. The new employment does have a certain fire prevention and escape common sense and self-help skills.

    5. Market access mechanism from the start, the better the community-owned commercial outlets, service stalls, village life, the Fire Code of the construction and management.

    6. Improve the urban communities, towns with residential areas and construction of fire facilities, identifying with the support of the basic standards of fire safety technology, looking back to carry out fire management activities. To meet fire standards for certification for the record, does not meet fire safety standards for the filing filing to urge the management to gradually establish and improve institutions and organizations with the support of the fire infrastructure.

    7. Establishment and improvement of urban communities, towns and villages the safety of residents and the mechanism of the Convention on fire rescue, courageous and strong recognition of the good deeds into the Samaritan Fund, a fire rescue, the implementation of the necessary spiritual and material rewards.

    8. Improve town planning and construction law, should be based on "design of rural buildings for fire protection" and "building design for fire protection" and other safety, environmental protection and measures laws and regulations, in accordance with the safe, reliable, economical and conservation of land, favorable production and convenient to the basic principles of life, rational plan living area, production area (factories and enterprises) service facilities, regulatory agencies and facilities, breeding and processing areas, grain, grass, materials, tools, equipment storage areas. Distinguish between categories, symptomatic management, and so to maintain the necessary fire safety spacing, with the appropriate fire-fighting facilities.

    9. Combined with rural drinking water project construction, basic fire additional water intake building for local characteristics and size of the fire pool; install a certain number of fire hydrants, fire lines with considerable length, the initial fire was put out to create conditions for self-help and self-defense.

    10. Conditions in rural areas in conjunction with irrigation equipment, modified car and fixed a water pump, plus the fire with tanks, tees and hydrant pipes to increase the interface to make and fire hose are connected, both normally irrigated farmland, but also in the fire when for mobile fire fighting equipment for fire fighting.

    12. Rural electric circuit design, installation to do in accordance with the implementation of low-voltage circuit design. Particularly in relation to such third and fourth level brick wooden fire resistance rating of the building, must be necessary to urge residents to wear tube protection. Installation overvoltage matching, leakage, overload, lightning protection and grounding protection. Do to prevent electrical fire accidents.

    13. Full absorption of modern social development and progress of civilization, the actual development of rural areas, safe use of modern technology to replace the management and way of life, such as the combination of rural latrines, construction of biogas, fire agency personnel office to initiate contact and energy , home care, a good job laying the pipeline, pipeline explosion-proof services. The application of these technologies will reduce rural dependence on firewood for fuel, will replace polluting energy sources and clean energy use and storage of firewood is not convenient, effective protection of the forest to maintain the ecological, but also laid the foundation for fire safety.

    14. Combined with efforts to increase the fire station management and in-depth, proper planning for each village, one of common sense to understand the fire safety officer is not difficult. County (city) fire agencies have focused on rural safety officer (public security officer), electrical appropriate training, teach them basic fire prevention and fire fighting methods. Obligation to establish the necessary public fire organizations. Essential to the safety since the anti-self-help, accept the fire inspection, fire safety situation remained stable.

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