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Zhang: the development of equipment manufacturing industry to create a new situation

    In 2008, China's reform and opening ushered in the first 30 years. Meanwhile,booster cables the 2008 is also fully implement the spirit of the party's seventh start of the year.

    Party National Congress, most of the seventh "revitalize the equipment manufacturing industry" as the important work of the party in the report. Party National Congress from 2002 to 2006 the State Council Document No. 8 (to speed up the revitalization of the State Council on Several Opinions of the equipment manufacturing industry) release,battery clip to the Seventeenth Party Congress in 2007 to revitalize the equipment manufacturing industry has become China's " take the new path of industrialization "development strategy is an important aspect.

    The process of industrialization in China is a critical period, tow rope the rapid development of equipment manufacturing in China a bright spot of economic events. According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 20 provinces and cities planning to build the equipment manufacturing industry gathering area. Equipment manufacturing industry has really become a supporting major economic region and an important pillar of national economic development industry.

    Recently, the "equipment manufacturing" Magazine of the equipment manufacturing industry as a management and coordination of sector leadership, the National Development and Reform Commission deputy director of the State Council,ratchet tie dowm the revitalization of old industrial bases in Northeast China Leading Group Office of Zhang.

    Equipment manufacturing base and strategic position.

    "Equipment manufacturing": We know that the equipment manufacturing industry in all areas for the national economy and national defense technology and equipment to provide basic and strategic industries. As a big developing country, why in the current phase of the equipment manufacturing industry to enhance our country to such an important position?

    Zhang: equipment manufacturing industry is a country's comprehensive national strength and national defense strength, an important manifestation. In the world today, we basically come to a judge, that is, all developed countries have advanced equipment manufacturing, such as the United States, Japan, Germany and France, all developed countries have developed the equipment manufacturing industry.

    Equipment is a tool of human activities, is the function of the brain and limbs extended, advanced equipment represent advanced productive forces, so that phase of human history is the invention and application of new equipment to divide, such as the use of iron is a slave society into the symbol of the feudal society, Watt invented the steam engine is a modern society and ancient society of the watershed. The birth of the steam engine to drive many machines (such as trains, automobiles, airplanes, etc.) are springing up to invented. Developed and newly industrialized countries in the industrialization stage regarded as the leading equipment manufacturing industry, given the priority list.

    Repeated in the modern history of China's humiliation, humiliating, in addition to political corruption than the broadsword spear no match for the imperialist powers gunboats. After the Opium War made a number of insightful people long to barbarian to the barbarians, what is the barbarians of the long? Is the foreign labor in the skill, will make the machine gun, but was then despised by some Chinese, that is the clever tricks and wicked craft. Representative of the product of the Westernization Movement, Li set up the memorials Kiangnan, Zuo memorials set up on the Council and tail boat yard, Zhang established the Hanyang arsenal, is the development of modern manufacturing.

    Since the founding of new China, although China's economic construction through a number of detours, but it is fortunate and proud that the old generation of leaders of vision, "a five year" period in order to concentrate on the construction of 156 key projects on behalf of the industrial system, 68 of which the equipment manufacturing industry, a heavy, HEC, Western Electric is building up at that time, subsequently conducted a large-scale "three-line" construction, equipment manufacturing industry in the greater China region layout. Especially after decades of development and growth since reform and opening up, China has established a wide range, with a considerable scale and a certain level of technology and equipment manufacturing system, only the United States, Japan, Germany, Russia and a few other countries can do it point, which is labor advantage in China after another following the international comparative advantage, and effectively protect the Chinese modernization.

    At present, China is in a critical period of industrialization, sustainable and huge market demand for the equipment manufacturing industry to accelerate development of a wider stage, to seize the strategic opportunity to revitalize the equipment manufacturing industry as a national strategy and to develop effective policies and measures promote its implementation, around 2020, the scale of China's equipment manufacturing industry is expected to among the world's first or second, the technical level will reach world-class, a real world manufacturing power equipment.

    "Equipment manufacturing": Some people say that the equipment manufacturing industry is lagging behind the sunset industries, mostly heavy and chemical industries with higher energy consumption. How do you view this issue?

    Zhang: cases may be just the opposite. High-tech equipment manufacturing. In the information, software, driven by emerging technologies, advanced equipment manufacturing industry has entered a high-tech fields, is the integration of the industrial technology. High-tech equipment manufacturing industry is the carrier for China's manned space engineering, development and application of nano-materials, nuclear research played a key role.

    Equipment manufacturing low energy consumption and pollutant emissions, the equipment manufacturing industry in 2005 energy consumption per yuan of industrial output value of 0.12 tons of standard coal, lower than the national industry average of 0.93 tons, compared to other more energy-efficient industrial cleaning industry. Advanced technology and equipment is a powerful tool to promote energy conservation, such as 100 kilowatts ultra-supercritical thermal power and coal consumption per kilowatt-hour sulfur dioxide, soot, nitrogen oxide emissions were 295.6 g, 0.134 g, 0.114 g, 1.09 g In 2005, the average thermal power plants nationwide were 370 grams, 6.49 grams, 1.76 grams, 3.18 grams. And metallurgy, petrochemical and other process industries than are high-level assembly equipment manufacturing industry, the unit's ability to invest more in creating jobs.

    Therefore, the equipment manufacturing industry is not only not a sunset industry, but also the future will be promising.

    Impressive development of equipment manufacturing industry in recent years.

    "Equipment manufacturing": the party since the Sixteenth Congress, the rapid development of China's equipment manufacturing industry, as the relevant areas of policy formulation and active agents, how do you evaluate the development of equipment manufacturing industry in recent years, the situation in China?

    Zhang: proven to revitalize the equipment manufacturing industry, focus and do not grasp a big difference.

    CPC Central Committee and State Council attached great importance to the development of equipment manufacturing industry, since the Sixteenth Congress the Party, Hu Jintao, Wu Bangguo, Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Li Changchun and other central leaders on many occasions to make an important equipment manufacturing work instructions. Vice-Premier Zeng held several meetings to study the work. February 2006, the State Council issued the equipment manufacturing industry to speed up the revitalization of a number of observations (Guo Fa 〔2006〕 8). The party's congress that it will "promote the industry from strong, to revitalize the equipment manufacturing industry", "encourage the development of internationally competitive conglomerates," the development of equipment manufacturing industry in China pointed out the direction, proposed a new, more high demand.

    Terms of the overall economies of scale, more than 2006 national-scale equipment manufacturing enterprises more than 80,000, the industrial added 2.3 trillion yuan, accounting for 25.5% of large-scale industrial added value accounted for 11% of GDP; assets totaled 7.3 trillion Yuan, realized main business income of 9.1 trillion yuan, profits of 453.6 billion yuan, accounting for 25.6% of the national industry, 32.4% and 24.2%.

    Read from the institutional innovation, reform state-owned equipment manufacturers to achieve substantial progress, most of the restructuring to become joint-stock enterprises. A general increase in the level of corporate management, operating efficiency improved markedly. Ownership structure has been optimized, with strong comprehensive strength of a number of private enterprises was growing group founded by universities and research institutes, has strong technical strength and high-tech companies are rapidly emerging, such as NC Central University, Zhejiang University in control, New song robots. Competition in the market and the government under the guidance of industry to further optimize the allocation of resources, to accelerate the pace of mergers and acquisitions, corporate groups are bigger and stronger. The largest equipment manufacturing enterprises in Shanghai Electric (601,727, stock it) Group currently has assets of more than 80 billion yuan. Including the Shenyang Machine Tool (000,410, stock it) Group, Dalian Machine Tool Group machine tool manufacturers, including seven foreign-known M & 10 peer companies, led the "going out" mergers and acquisitions abroad, the trend of well-known enterprises.

    From the independent innovation of recent years, the central leadership, the relevant departments closely focus on major construction projects and industry needs, based on the project to establish domestic production, the unified external negotiations, the introduction of digestion and absorption of foreign advanced technology, support and technical transformation of enterprises research, targeted to achieve some of the first sets of major equipment production, push forward the work of domestic equipment, and enhance independent innovation capability of the industry achieved a number of new results.

    "Equipment manufacturing": Please explain the specific, in equipment manufacturing in China in recent years have made in various fields what progress? What are the results of independent innovation achieved?

    Zhang: I have to power equipment, for example, appeared briefly introduced nearly two years of independent innovation. China's power industry was born in Shanghai in 1882, the first generation devices only 11.76 kilowatts. 1987 installed capacity of 1 million kilowatts, with 105 years; reached 200 million kilowatts in 1994, spent 7 years; reached 300 million kilowatts in 1999, spent 5 years; reached 400 million kilowatts in 2003, spent 4 years; reached 500 million kilowatts in 2005, spent 2 years; 2006, 2007, respectively, over 600 million, 700 million kilowatts, are only 1 year, which accounted for 88% of the capacity of domestic equipment. Made the first one million kilowatts have been ultra supercritical thermal power units and power generation, nuclear power plants along the river red 4 100 million kilowatts of nuclear power generating units up to 80% local production, through the bundling of three batches of large gas turbine tender, the introduction of foreign large gas turbine manufacturing technology, product localization rate gradually increased over a large gas turbines in China can not make history. National production of 70 million kilowatts right bank of the Three Gorges hydropower units have also been put into operation, making China the design and manufacture of large hydroelectric generating capacity in a few years to reach the world advanced level. Through large-scale wind farm concession bidding and the introduction of technology, made 1.5 MW wind turbine has been put into operation volume, localization rate of 86%, reducing the wind farm construction and operating costs, electricity price per kWh down to 0.4 ~ 0.5 yuan (0.8 yuan previously), is developing 3 MW and 5 MW wind turbine. Hand-held fan is currently the Secretary of Dalian Hua Ruigong has more than 3,000 orders. In transmission equipment, through the Northwest Power Grid of Qinghai - Gansu 750 kV AC transmission pilot project, west to east engineering, master of the 750 kV AC transmission, ± 500 kV DC transmission key equipment manufacturing . Tottenham are currently under high-pressure test and demonstration projects, organize the 1000 kV AC and ± 800 kV UHV DC power transmission equipment development.

    In other areas, such as metallurgical equipment, China has been able to provide complete sets of annual output of 800-ton steel company in conventional process equipment; petrochemical equipment, most of the key equipment required for the works, the main oil refinery and petrochemical plant equipment to achieve localization, and has application in the petrochemical enterprises; polyester outfit has been exported abroad; cement production line equipment, complete sets of international advanced level; urban rail transportation equipment made considerable progress, the vehicle has reached more than 70% localization rate; coal oil extraction equipment, the Taiyuan Heavy Machinery Factory creating the world's largest capacity of 55 cu m bucket excavators mining, land-based oil rig manufacturing technology in China reached the international advanced level in general, Baoji Petroleum Machinery Company has become the world's largest manufacturer of land drilling rig . Industrial automation products, control systems have begun to use domestic iron and steel, chemical industry. The technical level of China-made CNC machine tools and market share rising to the low-end CNC machine tools has been widely recognized by users, basically meet the domestic demand. Part of China urgently needs, subject to foreign high-end CNC machine tools has made new breakthroughs in research and development, some of the military industry to use sophisticated five-axis CNC machining equipment to start relying on domestic supply. Ship equipment, the construction of 30 million tons level has very large oil tankers (VLCC), 30 tons of large floating production storage and offloading (FPSO), 8000 TEU class container carriers and other high-tech ships, is building liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. Large marine diesel engine crankshaft to achieve a domestic production and exports began to become second only to Japan, South Korea and the Czech Republic after the world's fourth producer of marine crankshaft. In the basic manufacturing equipment, the design and manufacture of a self-re-group on the tonnage of the world's largest, with modern control technology to 1.5 million tons of free forging hydraulic press developed, China has greatly enhanced the level and capacity of manufacturing large forgings. Heavy Industry Group, Shanghai Electric Construction 16,500 tons forging press will soon be put into use. 80,000 t-class large-scale precision die forging press, 3.6 million tons of seamless pipes extrusion machines and other major equipment has been completed and started pre-demonstration project development.

    "Equipment manufacturing": So, from an international perspective, China equipment manufacturing industry in the international pattern of how to evaluate the status?

    Zhang: equipment manufacturing country in the world today is the United States, Japan, Germany and China. Estimate concerned, the scale of China's equipment manufacturing industry is roughly equivalent to U.S. 4 / 10, Japan 1 / 2 strong, Germany 7 / 10. From a technical level, the United States, Japan and Germany represent the basic development of the world's highest level of equipment manufacturing industry, leading in most industries. Some other countries, some of the equipment manufacturing industry is powerful, on behalf of the world's leading level, such as Russia's heavy machinery and weapons manufacturing, rail vehicles and the Canadian regional aircraft manufacturer, the Swiss manufacturer of precision machine tools and instruments, bearing in Sweden Manufacturing, South Korea's ships and electronic equipment manufacturing.

    However, we need an objective understanding of China's equipment manufacturing industry, the level of independent innovation, not only not talk, nor arrogance. Should be recognized that China and the world advanced level there is still a gap, domestic equipment, the domestic market to meet the overall degree of less than 60% lower in the areas of major equipment, especially high-tech equipment, micro-processing equipment (such as semiconductor processing equipment) is almost to rely on imports. And equipment to support high technology products still rely on foreign countries, such as aircraft engines, ships, aircraft navigation instrumentation, signal systems, high precision bearings, drive, CNC knife, measuring tools, high-speed train braking systems and more. Technical content on the equipment, we can only be considered a member of the second phalanx.

    Actively undertake the transfer of foreign industry.

    "Equipment manufacturing": the current world situation is a profound adjustment of the manufacturing sector, the international transfer of equipment manufacturing industry trend is more obvious, whether China will become the accepted transfer of the equipment manufacturing industry a big winner?

    Zhang: At this stage, economic globalization and information technology-led development of new industries in the world to speed up economic restructuring, the equipment manufacturing industry pattern is re-shuffling. Bound to the equipment manufacturing labor abundant, low cost, market demand in developing countries.

    Industrial countries to determine their own development stages or have to withdraw from the labor-intensive industries with high labor intensity, is committed to higher technology and higher value-added product manufacturing and development of new industries. Such as the American and European shipyards generally not built bulk carriers, oil tankers and other conventional ship, the ship turned to liquefied natural gas contractor, a large luxury liner high value-added products.

    China's industrial and infrastructure construction have a good foundation, the domestic stability and order situation, rising international status, industry, capital is relatively abundant, there is a strong contingent of industrial workers, domestic market demand. These advantages become a continuation of China's decision to transfer the most appropriate equipment manufacturing country.

    Like shipbuilding, I used to have the author suggested, to build China into the world's largest shipbuilding country. It now appears that this goal will soon be realized.

    Since the 1950s, followed by the world's manufacturing center of the ship from Europe to Japan → South Korea → shift, showing a shift in trend.

    China's shipbuilding industry after 20 years of development, has become a strong international competitiveness, comprehensive development of important industries obvious advantages, since 1998, has been ranked third in the world shipbuilding output, although production and technical level and Japan and South Korea are still large gap, but the Japanese have been in decline stage, the stage of steady growth in South Korea, China is rapidly increasing, from 1999 to 2006, average annual shipbuilding output increased by 20%, much higher than Japan, Korea and the level of growth is accelerating to shorten their gap. The year 2007, there are data that accept orders for new ships in China accounted for 42.5% of world market share, not only over the world superpower Korean shipbuilding industry, and the history of the world's shipbuilding orders exceeding a million tons of shipbuilding country.

    "Manufacturing equipment": In addition to shipbuilding, what are the international market capacity may become a huge industry breakthrough we?

    Zhang: That's a lot of industrial categories, such as recently, we are expected to advance rapidly to the large casting and forging a breakthrough. Despite the recent large-scale casting and forging into China's nuclear power equipment and other heavy equipment, the bottleneck of the development of the whole world is tense, but this just gives us the opportunity, China may become the world's leading producer of large forgings. Large forging is widely used in many large-scale equipment manufacturing industry. Recently, due to the global nuclear power industry, the rapid development of world nuclear power market is a full recovery, the industrialized countries are actively committed to the development of nuclear power.

    The expansion of nuclear power as the United States as a national energy policy an important part; Russia has developed a large-scale nuclear power program has been in the South to build a 100 million kilowatts in the reactor, in addition to the construction of four generating units are; Japanese Government nuclear statehood, in 2010 years ago, 13 new nuclear power plant after 2011, to build seven nuclear power plants; recently, there are 11 countries in Asia were proposed to develop nuclear power.

    Construction of nuclear power resulted in the recovery of a serious shortage of large forgings, well-known heavy machinery production tasks have been discharged after 3 years. Production of large forgings, must have a ton of large forging machines. The world in the use of large forging machine 14, Russia, Japan and South Korea 2, Taiwan 1 each in other countries, China now has 4 sets of 2 units in the created and put into use within this year, the maximum pressure is 16,500 tons, the world. From today's huge demand at home and abroad and China's potential processing capability, I believe that Chinese companies will become major global major supplier of forgings.

    A large number of other labor-intensive, capital-intensive, technology-intensive equipment manufacturing industry, we are expected to achieve a major breakthrough in 3-5 years.

    "Equipment manufacturing": from the perspective of the equipment manufacturing industry, how do you view recent heated debate "Long as the battle?"

    Zhang: In recent years, the international development trend of China and India the same good, some scholars in particular, some Western scholars believe that in the long run, India in software development, language, social system and so more advantages than China.

    But I personally think that compared with China, India, at least one weakness, that is, he did not establish an independent equipment manufacturing system, so development has been more constrained.

    Recent tight energy supply situation in India, and China's reform and opening up similar, but also need to build many power plants, but can not create its own power generation equipment, basically rely on foreign buying, many by the Chinese enterprises. In the current environment of international competition, China, India, want to have a complete manufacturing system, very difficult, even now built, there will be a long time to have this capability.

    Public support for the development of equipment manufacturing needs.

    "Equipment manufacturing": From the industry point of view, China's equipment manufacturing industry, do you think the problems currently facing what?

    Zhang: In the equipment manufacturing industry, we are still many shortcomings, first, the import of equipment and technology the government has not formed yet the introduction of effective management and coordination mechanisms, some companies only concerned the import of equipment to the neglect of technology imports, or to technology introduction to the neglect of absorption, repeated introduction of a serious problem.

    Second, the state-owned enterprises as the main force of innovation lack of motivation, rather low-level replication manufacturing capacity, do not want to improve efficiency through innovation; prefer to imitate the introduction and tracking, do not want to take the hard work of digestion and absorption of another new and original innovation.

    Third, lack of R & D investment. China's equipment manufacturing R & D funding for medium and large enterprises into the proportion of sales accounted for only 1.2% lower than in Japan and other developed countries, 4 percent; cost of China's equipment manufacturing industry and the digestion and absorption of imported technology cost ratio 1:0.36, while the industrial countries is usually 1:3.

    Fourth, low industrial concentration, the lack of like the United States GE, Mitsubishi, Siemens, Germany has a strong R & D capabilities of large enterprise groups.

    Fifth, the domestic market failed to make full use of resources, the user of the equipment is not enough domestic support, independent innovation, promote the use of products is quite difficult.

    "Equipment manufacturing": Looking at the development of the global path of developed countries, the equipment manufacturing industry, many governments support policies in the development of equipment manufacturing industry play a very important role. How China should learn from the experience of its development?

    Zhang: major developed countries generally value the cultivation of large enterprise groups, to stimulate the development of equipment manufacturing industry in their countries, sometimes even as government spokesman, the organization of major construction projects, cutting-edge product research and development and foreign trade. Such as the United States, General Electric, General Motors, Ford, Japan's Mitsubishi, Toshiba, Hitachi, Toyota, Nissan, Germany's Siemens, Volkswagen, Dai - grams, France, Alstom, Bombardier of Canada, South Korea's Hyundai, Samsung and others.

    Government support equipment manufacturing industry in these countries grow and an important guarantee. Both past and present, but also whether in or outside the context of WTO rules, these countries have given their strong support for the equipment manufacturing industry. These support means, including government procurement, tax relief, preferential loans, capital investment, market protection and other aspects, and each period of industrial development in the use of different focus.

    Usually the United States government procurement, military orders, government funding and other means to protect their own market, a number of public facilities (such as the subway) construction equipment localization rate is also required. The United States in the 1930s had developed "BuyAmericaAct" (Buy American Act) regulating government procurement, is still valid.

    I went to visit the Canadian Bombardier, when they were working for U.S. production vehicle, U.S. law requires them to, manufacturing more than 50% of the workload to be completed in the United States.

    Japan, South Korea advance the development of equipment manufacturing industry has developed regulations for Japan last century, the fifties and sixties as "mechanical Revitalization Act," to limit the introduction of equipment to support the introduction of technology absorption and innovation, the introduction of ban repeat.

    In addition, in recent years, foreign governments in support of national equipment manufacturing industry, some new trends, it is worth our attention. Such as the time before the move will support R & D links, with emphasis on the role of intermediary role of the government, tend to support the means of secret and so on.

    "Equipment manufacturing": You have always attached great importance to publicity efforts to revitalize the equipment manufacturing industry, where you think the news media can play what role?

    Zhang: revitalize the equipment manufacturing industry requires the strong support of public opinion, we should strive to create an atmosphere of public opinion to revitalize the equipment manufacturing industry. To give full play to the mainstream media's role in advocating the development and application of the equipment manufacturing industry reported success stories, the collective and the individual deeds. Equipment manufacturers on product quality, but off, breach of supply contract, the user-made equipment, and other negative examples of discrimination have the courage to exposure. "Equipment manufacturing" as the first in the country to the equipment manufacturing industry as the magazine reported the object to efforts to revitalize the equipment manufacturing industry to make greater contributions to advocacy work.

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