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Too fast urbanization, economic development today is benevolent low-carbon model

    Humanity is the great turning point in history.

    2010 Shanghai World Expo will be held on the occasion, a time when human society is two great historical turning point: First, is the world's too fast development of urbanization; Second, booster cables is human is at the eve of the new technological revolution.

    Moving rapidly to the development of urbanization, over the past 200 years, especially since the middle of last century,battery clip 50 years, the human process of urbanization at an unprecedented rate to move forward. Currently, the global urban area of the Earth's total surface area of less than 1%, but the total global urban population has exceeded the Earth 50% of the total population. The proportion of the global urban population in 1800 was 2%, tow rope 13% in 1900 to 1950 it reached 29%. May 23, 2007 is the human process of urbanization has symbolic significance in the day.ratchet tie dowm On this day, the first time in human history, the statistics of urban population on the planet than the rural population: the day the total number of global urban population reached 3,303,392,253, a total of more than a total of 125,869 rural people. It is estimated that the human process of urbanization in the next few decades will continue for development: By 2010, the planet's urban population will account for 51.3% of the total population by 2030, the world will have 60% of the population living in city.

    And for the scientific and technological revolution of the past 400 years time, mankind has experienced two scientific revolution and the three technical revolution. 16-17 century, Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Darwin as a representative of the human in astronomy, physics and biology in a scientific revolution broke out; and early 20th century to the core of quantum mechanics and relativity physics revolution, and after the Big Bang, DNA double helix, plate tectonic theory, computer science and other major scientific breakthrough, the second scientific revolution reveals the basic law of microscopic material world, and established the basic structure of modern science . In both the scientific revolution, led by human beings since the 18th century technological revolution occurred three times: the mid-18th century, the invention of the steam engine and wide application of scientific and technological revolution marked the first time, mankind has entered the era of steam; 19th century, 30 years technology to power marked the second technological revolution, to promote the human race has entered the age of electricity; 40 years since the 20th century, electronic technology, aerospace technology, nuclear technology, information and network technology to mark the third technological revolution, the human From the age of electricity into the electronic age.

    In the human race through the city of today, more people to pursue the strong desire of modern life, and the supply capacity of natural resources and ecological carrying capacity of the formation of an increasingly intense contradictions. The existence and development of this contradiction, a new round of brewing and promoting scientific and technological revolution in human an important factor. According to scientists predict that, after 60 years of silence science, human science and technology is now at the eve of revolutionary change, half of the 21st century will have a greater likelihood of the emergence of new scientific revolution. There is no doubt adapt to people's green revolution in the process of urbanization will be a new round of revolution in science and technology theme, energy saving, environmental protection, focusing on new energy, new materials will become an important new field of scientific and technological revolution. Since the second half of 2007, in the background of global financial crisis, the United States, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, Italy, Spain, Australia, South Korea and other major countries, are trying to develop a green strategy, green programs, green policy, and a series of effective measures to promote energy saving, so that the green revolution is from the concept of continuous practice. This is the arrival of new science and technology revolution, has an important role in promoting.

    Low-carbon economy: towards a new path of human ecological civilization.

    It is human acceleration of urbanization and new scientific and technical revolution brewing and development, so that the "low-carbon economy" is increasingly becoming a new model of human economic development and new ideas.

    Low-carbon economy is in the human and the resulting greenhouse effect of global warming become increasingly serious in the context concerned. In 2007, the World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Programme jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released its fourth scientific assessment report. The scientific assessment report clearly pointed out that global warming has become a serious problem of mankind can not be ignored: from 1906 to 2005 years, the global average surface temperature increased by 0.74 ℃, 20 century, 50 years after the average temperature is near the northern hemisphere record in 1300, and just the past 10 years, humans have become the hottest since records began 10 years. Rise in temperature resulted in significantly reduced area of the Northern Hemisphere snow cover, mountain glaciers and accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. At the same time, ocean warming caused by thermal expansion of seawater, according to statistics, the 20th century, global average sea level rise of about 0.17 meters. In addition, global warming has also caused more extreme weather events becoming Strong Tendency.
    Experts predict that the 21st century global warming trend will continue. 2020 global average surface temperature relative to the 20th century will rise by about 20 years after the 0.4 ℃, a century in the 21st century, global average surface temperature of 1.1 ℃ may be further increased to 6.4 ℃. If greenhouse gas emissions without effective control in some areas and may even extreme events that never happened.

    It is increasingly clear understanding that excessive greenhouse gas emissions by the crisis is caused by erosion of the city's vitality and quality of urban life, endangering the human environment and economic and social development. And to solve the problem of global warming, humanity must work together to strengthen international cooperation and dialogue to jointly address the challenges of climate change. Therefore, the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development adopted the "Framework Convention on Climate Change." "Covenant" proposed a "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, so that natural ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened, and to enable economic to sustainable development". Signed in 1997 the "Kyoto Protocol" in the "Convention" proposed objective, clearly defined in the developed countries as a whole commitment period 2008-2012 greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by at least a 5% reduction operational requirements. Copenhagen upcoming end of this year the 15th Conference of the Parties will work on two levels set for human emissions of greenhouse gases a new road map: one is the "Kyoto Protocol" on the basis of the developed countries after 2012 to determine the new emission reduction commitments; the other is in the "Framework Convention on Climate Change" and 2012 determined on the basis of the effective participation of developing countries after the operations and the developed countries have not signed the Protocol emission reduction obligations.

    In order to fulfill its international obligations under the Convention, countries in the world are actively developing new strategies to control greenhouse gas emissions, seeking a balance between economic development and environmental protection development. In 2003 the British Government for the first time in its energy White Paper released by the United Kingdom --- "Our energy future: creating a low carbon economy", that "low-carbon economy" concept. Low-carbon economy is a goal to protect the global climate, the efficient use of energy and clean energy development, based on low power consumption, low pollution, low emissions as the basic features of the economic form. The economic structure is considered to be post-industrial society shifted from an industrial civilization, a new ecological civilization, economic and social patterns. The concept of low-carbon economy was raised, causing great concern in the international community and widely recognized. In 2006, former World Bank chief economist Nicholas Stern, in its lead to complete the "Stern Report" that the global investment GDP1% per year, to avoid future GDP5% -20% annual loss, which called for a global transition to low carbon economy. July 2007, the U.S. Senate proposed the "Low Carbon Economy Act," and proposed the development of low-carbon economy would be the future path of important strategic choice. 3 December the same year, the United Nations, held in Bali Climate Change Conference to formulate a response to climate change, "Bali roadmap" for further progress towards a low carbon global economy has played a positive role in promoting the landmark. In the July 2008 G8 summit, held, attended by 8 heads of state said it would seek "the Framework Convention on Climate Change," the other contracting parties to work together to achieve the 2050 global greenhouse gas emissions by 50% the long term. Can be said that low-carbon economy is increasingly becoming a variety of different levels of development countries, the broad consensus: the development of low-carbon economy developed countries the main objective is to maintain and continue to improve the current high level of economic development and social situation of the level of consumption, through technological innovation and economic and social transformation, a significant reduction in the current high level of carbon emissions in order to achieve global stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases in the target. The low-carbon development goals of developing countries, it is through the development of low carbon energy technologies and the transformation of the mode of economic development, slowing down the rapid economic growth caused by the additional energy demand growth in carbon emissions. Although the goals are different, but low-carbon economy model has been deeply rooted in national economic development plan, the broad response of the international community.
    30 years of reform and opening up, China 5.5% average annual growth of energy consumption to support economic growth by 9.8%. As a country's rapid economic development, developing low-carbon economy is of great significance to China. September 8, 2007, President Hu Jintao at the APEC (APEC) leaders meeting on the 15th, the first time, clearly the idea of China's development and advocacy for low-carbon economy, that is to develop low-carbon economy, development and promotion of low carbon energy technologies, while increasing carbon sequestration, and promote carbon sequestration technology. President Hu also proposed to establish "Asia-Pacific Network on Forest Rehabilitation and Sustainable Management" to jointly promote Asia-Pacific forest rehabilitation and growth, and mitigation of climate change. In fact, as early as the end of 2006, the relevant state ministries have jointly released China's first "National Assessment Report on Climate Change"; in June 2007, China has officially released the "China National Climate Change Programme." Beginning in 2007, China established a national response to climate change and energy conservation, the leading group, deployed across the country to address climate change, and organizations to implement energy-saving and emission reduction. August 12 this year, Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a State Council executive meeting, heard and considered the Development and Reform Commission on Climate Change report on the work, made a "nurture new growth points for the low-carbon economy," the major decisions. This indicates that the development of low-carbon economy has entered a new stage of development. Of course, our country's international commitment to energy conservation and emission reduction should follow the "common but differentiated" principle, China's development stage with the match.

    Shanghai World Expo: the big stage of a low carbon economy.

    Expo with previous similar turning point in the new stage of human development, organized by the World Expo 2010 Shanghai China will become the new technology, new products, new ideas fully demonstrated the stage. Host the World Expo, and various World Expo exhibitors together spare no effort to promote energy saving at the Expo concept, practice, developing low carbon economy.

    First, as the Shanghai World Expo host, the Chinese Government and Shanghai World Expo in the Expo site planning and design, venue construction, and park operations side will be the first to fully reflect the low carbon economy concept, which fully demonstrated the Expo will host the country's scientific and technological innovations :

    (1) the use of large area solar energy: the organizers responsible for the China Pavilion, Theme Pavilion, and studied the parts of plants and other major venues and facilities, will install solar power facilities. After the completion of the Expo site solar power generation capacity will reach 5 MW, as the current focus on the domestic application of solar energy in urban districts the largest area. Among them, the theme of the Expo Hall will be the largest single area of solar roof: the solar panel area of 30,000 square meters, the generating capacity of up to 250 million degrees, reduce carbon dioxide emissions per year over 2500 tons.

    (2) will use the new environmentally friendly modes of transport: Shanghai World Expo site will use the new trolley buses, cars and super capacitor supercapacitor and battery hybrid and other clean power three cars, the park's public transport will achieve "zero emissions" and provides visitors environmentally clean transport services. Clean vehicles in the Expo area will greatly promote the use of new energy vehicles in Shanghai development and use. According to the plan, by 2012, annual production of vehicles in Shanghai will give 10% of new energy vehicles. By then, Shanghai will be saving 078 million liters per year and reduce carbon dioxide emissions 23 million tons.

    (3) to promote the use of energy-saving equipment: Urban Best Practices Area will be used in the lighting of the main known as the "21st century green light," the semiconductor lighting (LED) technology, which is the first semiconductor lighting the mass concentration of urban neighborhoods use.

    (4) application of resource recycling technology: the use of the advantages of the layout of the Expo site Riverside development and utilization of heat and geothermal resources of the river, through the Huangpu River as a source of heat and cold shallow geothermal resources, underground heat pump, collected using both heating but also cooling of zero pollution, clean energy can be recycled; use stadium roof construction of large rainwater collection system, purified water for the green, saving water resources; use a variety of physical and biological technology, the Huangpu River purification for green parks and landscape facilities.

   (5) to build energy-efficient eco-buildings: Almost organizers responsible for the construction of venues and facilities, are required by energy conservation ecological building design and construction. Design, full use of natural wind field, wind tunnel underground space, automatic shading system, natural light, green roofs, green walls, to reduce building energy consumption. Use of building materials, select a small consumption of energy resources and significant environmental benefits of green building materials. It is particularly worth mentioning is the theme of the Expo Hall of the things on both sides of the wall will be built in an area of 4,000 square meters of the world's largest eco-wall, used to control and regulate the temperature inside the exhibition hall.

    (6) will be applied harmless solid waste, reduction, resource processing technology: Almost all the waste will be generated for classification. Pudong, "a four-axis Hall" and other permanent construction zone, the planning and construction waste pipe pneumatic conveying system. Closed through the construction of gas pipeline power, use of computer process control garbage collection, transport processes, and use scientific means all waste treatment, pollution reduction, waste to treasure. In addition, the park uses a variety of life equipment and supplies, are the use of renewable or biodegradable materials to reduce environmental pollution.

    In addition to the organizers of their own efforts, low-carbon economy will be the Shanghai World Expo 241 participating countries and international organizations, many participants in the pavilion exhibit design and display concept:

    For example, the Japanese National Museum "Silkworm Purple Island" in the design of environmental control technology used to make light, water, air and other natural resources to maximize utilization. Hall of external light coupled with high double-layer membrane inner solar cells, can take advantage of solar energy resources; the exhibition hall is circular breathing pores using the latest technology. Like the shape of the Japan Pavilion a "Battlestar," the building was covered with a layer of solar power installations with ultra-light "membrane structure", this unique high-tech design allows the Japanese Pavilion will become a "breathing" of the exhibition hall.

    Again, the investment budget of nearly 2 billion yuan, the construction area of 8,500 square meters of the Spanish Pavilion, by the thousands of wicker "woven" together. Hall of environmental protection materials, mainly construction materials, with curved steel beams intersect to form the same structure as the basket, wall covered with wicker, this design allows natural light randomly fired into the room through the steel and wicker. Inside the main hall and use of bamboo as a material translucent paper, at the top of the use of solar energy, which play a saving effect.

    Swiss National Museum of the wall is a curtain of translucent overlay network structure of aluminum, curtain hanging from a height of 20 meters down the irregular distribution of the above light emitting device 11000. These components include sensitized solar cells by the environmental bio-resin, so that the external walls of the exhibition presents a dynamic flash visual effect. The new screen curtain is made from soybean fibers, both power generation, but also in the display after the end of the natural degradation can be described as distinctive.

    UAE National Museum of the rolling orange shell like a fast-changing, the vast expanse of desert. The shadow of a tropical desert climate of hot country will be on display in its unique way of telling the story of world energy use: show how ancestors of fresh water to the Shamo colonial area, show you how to do electricity or other energy and let the house way cool.

    In addition to the display of national and international organizations, the Shanghai World Expo, there is an important initiative that the Expo Park in Puxi area to establish the Urban Best Practice Area. Shanghai World Expo as an important carrier of one of the Theme, established the Urban Best Practice Area Urban Development representing the world's four exhibition areas: their homes livable, sustainable urbanization, the protection and use of historical heritage, built environment scientific and technological innovation. Shanghai World Expo organizers set up an international selection committee of 28 countries from five continents, 113 cities in 87 cases of applicants, the final selection of about 50 cases of physical building and exhibition hall display case. Many of the cases were selected countries of the world an example of energy saving, and the concept of low-carbon economy highly consistent:

    For example, in Germany, "Hamburg House" case shows is that a very low energy consumption standard features of the "passive house." The housing initiative to supply the basic energy need, but by geothermal heat pumps to achieve the heating, cooling, ventilation and dehumidification. "Hamburg House" with Shanghai's climate, creating a relative isolation of space, without using any heating or air conditioning will be able to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature and the environment, so warm in winter, cool in summer. Construction is also using solar energy to achieve self-sufficiency in energy supply and the construction of zero emissions. This building energy consumption per square meter per 50 kilowatts, equivalent to an ordinary office building a quarter of the average energy consumption.
    Hamburg House echoes the case of the British Museum in London case of zero carbon. Museum of the prototype zero carbon from the world's first zero carbon community --- Beddington (BedZED) zero-carbon community. Case of zero carbon dioxide emissions from the two small building before and after the phase, the building has 6 units in the home beautifully decorated homes, zero carbon building area of 2,500 square meters hall. Museum of the use of zero-carbon energy system of the UK BedZED zero core and key technologies, combined with the climatic characteristics of the Shanghai area energy-saving environmental protection, full use of natural resources and renewable energy technologies for building a comprehensive development, improve the utilization of the building for energy . In the zero-carbon Museum, the HVAC needs of the solar wind-driven absorption refrigeration system and the Hood River public water supply system, building additional power through the solar panels and biomass combined heat and power generation and energy demand throughout the year to meet the construction .

    Madrid, Spain, selected cases of Bamboo House and the ecological climate tree case shows is that two buildings in Madrid imitation unique: 2008 received the Royal Architectural Association Awards (RIBA) covers an area of 600 square meters of bamboo house, bamboo skin surface by a layer of parcels, to create an original atmosphere, the light can be well adjusted, and the building provides a layer of temperature, sound and visual barrier, which can effectively cut off from the winter rain and snow, cold and summer heat. Bamboo House tree next to the eco-climatic environment through advanced technological means to improve the external climate. Eco-climatic tree hollow inside, can be used as the public square, visitors can also be more comfortable in this environment of temperature and to visit, rest.

    "Everything begins with the Expo," --- this is the slogan of the World Expo, the Expo is the spiritual heritage of 158 years. Held in the new century, China 2010 Shanghai World Expo will be the host country and all kinds of exhibitors competing with new energy, new technologies, new materials showing the use of green, energy-saving and environmental protection on the big stage. Shanghai World Expo will also became the dissemination, promotion and practice of the concept of low-carbon economy demonstration areas.

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